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CSO statistical release, 16 December 2014, 11am

Supply and Use and Input-Output Tables for Ireland

2011

Detailed picture of the structure of the Irish economy in 2011

Percentage type of use of Use table products 2011

The Supply and Use and Input-Output Tables for 2011 provide a detailed picture of the transactions of goods and services by industries and consumers in the Irish economy in a single year. They highlight the inter-industry flows that lie behind the National Accounts main aggregates such as gross output, operating surplus and external trade movements, etc. These tables also serve as an integrated framework for all production statistics and are used as a statistical tool to compile and reconcile independent estimates of National Accounts aggregates. The Supply and Use framework shows the components of gross value added (GVA) by industry as well as imports, exports and taxes and subsidies on products. The GVA in the Use table measures the contribution to GDP made by each particular industry branch.

A number of methodological changes have been introduced for the 2011 tables in order to improve these estimates. Details are provided in the Background Notes section at the foot of this page.

Summaries are provided below of three of the more important tables in this publication. These are Table 1 (Supply Table at basic prices), Table 2 (Use Table at purchasers' prices) and Table 9 (Symmetric Input-Output Table of domestic product flows at basic prices).

Table 1 - Supply Table at basic prices

This table provides estimates of the supply of goods and services (products) by domestic industries as well as imports of goods and services. The supply of products is presented in the rows while the columns show the industry branches that produce these goods and services. Each industry is classified according to whichever product accounts for the largest part of its output. Its principal production, shown on the diagonal elements of the Supply table, is therefore larger than its secondary production shown on the off-diagonal elements. A summary of the 2011 Supply table at basic prices is shown below.

Table A Summary of 2011 Supply Table at basic prices €m
 Industries    €m
 Agriculture, forestry & fishingManufacturingConstruction Distribution, transport & communicationBusiness servicesOther servicesTotal DomesticImports c.i.f. (carriage, insurance & freight inclusive)MarginsTaxes less subsidiesTotal Supply (purchasers' prices)
Products(1-3)(5-39)(41-43)(45-61)(62-82)(84-97)     
Agriculture, forestry & fishing7,277000007,277838956419,112
Manufacturing1598,18501310098,33150,84023,4239,901182,496
Construction4009,5150009,555001,82411,379
Distribution, transport & communication132,832062,4542,842068,14217,689-24,3791,52762,979
Business services03,495634,56594,872455103,45062,55402,167168,171
Other services81024044,58544,6184770-61044,484
Output7,352104,5139,57867,17497,71445,041331,373132,398014,851478,621

Table 2 - Use Table at purchasers’ prices

This table shows the use of products by domestic industry and by the final demand sectors ("final demand" comprises consumption by households, government, non-profit organisations serving households (NPISH), gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) and exports). As in the previous table, industries are shown in the columns and products in the rows. Thus the columns of figures for industries NACE 1 - 97 show the goods and services used by each industry for the purposes of achieving its output. The purchases in these columns relate to intermediate consumption only. The capital purchases are shown separately but a breakdown by industry is not provided. All the purchases of households in their private (non-business) capacity as consumers are included under household consumption with the exception of the purchase of dwellings, which is included with gross fixed capital formation. A summary of the 2011 Use table at purchasers' prices is shown below.

Table B Summary of 2011 Use Table at purchasers' prices €m
 Industries   €m
 Agriculture, forestry & fishingManufacturingConstruction Distribution, transport & communicationBusiness servicesOther servicesTotal inter-industryConsumption and GFCFExports f.o.b. (free on board)Total Uses
Products(1-3)(5-39)(41-43)(45-61)(62-82)(84-97)    
Agriculture, forestry & fishing1,4344,31934790225,8882,0961,1289,112
Manufacturing3,30630,5234,6755,8591,5113,68649,56147,24385,692182,496
Construction694221,0603232022432,3189,062011,379
Distribution, transport & communication954,5681546,3296,0391,00218,18718,10126,69262,979
Business services30023,8991,02118,54743,6495,40292,81822,22553,128168,171
Other services262141387471,3773,9066,40937,62844744,484
Total Intermediate consumption5,23063,9447,08331,88452,77814,261175,181136,354167,086478,621
          
COE61410,0063,77916,60114,52624,55070,076   
GOS3,29829,844-1,30818,15030,0366,39386,413   
Taxes less subsidies-1,79071925539374-164-297   
Value added2,12240,5692,49535,29144,93630,779156,192   
Output7,352104,5139,57867,17497,71445,041331,373   

Table 9 - Symmetric Input-Output Table of domestic product flows at basic prices

This table is derived from the preceding tables. The transformation of the Supply and Use tables to Input-Output tables is based on the commodity technology assumption (See Handbook of Input-Output Table Compilation and Analysis, United Nations Publication, Sales No. E99XVII.9, New York, 1999). The Input-Output table of domestic product flows forms the basis of Table 12 which contains the Leontief inverse coefficients of domestic flows which are required by users of Input-Output techniques to assess the implications of changes in demand on the various sectors of the economy. It purports to show the use made of domestically produced products in the manufacture or provision of other products. A summary of the 2011 Input-Output table for domestic product flows is shown below.

Table C Summary of 2011 Symmetric Input-Output table of domestic product flows €m
 Products   €m
 Agriculture, forestry & fishingManufacturingConstruction Distribution, transport & communicationBusiness servicesOther servicesTotal inter-industryConsumption and GFCFExports f.o.b. (free on board)Total Outputs
Products(1-3)(5-39)(41-43)(45-61)(62-82)(84-97)    
Agriculture, forestry & fishing1,1623,44828731194,7311,4441,1027,277
Manufacturing5914,1541,4621,3314918908,9194,94884,46498,331
Construction603251,0323441392122,1137,44209,555
Distribution, transport & communication3654,8594565,1053,9191,03515,74024,45727,94568,142
Business services1961,7447236,93518,5083,59931,70518,61753,128103,450
Other services221671356641,4313,9356,35537,81544744,618
Total Intermediate consumption2,39814,6973,83614,45324,4899,69069,56294,724167,086331,373
Imports2,65345,9883,09216,38229,8013,801101,71730,6810132,398
Product taxes less subsidies1343811711,0331,4986843,90110,949014,851
Total at purchasers' prices5,18561,0667,09931,86855,78814,175175,181136,354167,086478,621
COE5868,7923,79116,59616,00424,30670,076   
GOS3,29627,792-1,36019,13031,2426,31386,413   
Other taxes less subsidies-1,79068125547417-176-297   
Value added2,09237,2652,45636,27347,66330,442156,192
Total inputs (= total outputs)7,27798,3319,55568,142103,45044,618331,373

An overview of the structure and composition of these tables, focusing on the four main tables of interest (the Supply Table at basic prices, the Use Table at purchasers' prices, the Symmetric Input-Output Table of domestic product flows and the Leontief inverse of domestic flows with multipliers for other inputs) and their consistency with other CSO publications is provided in the Background Notes at the foot of this release.

Table 1 is the Supply Table at basic prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 1 (XLS 35KB)

Table 2 is the Use Table at purchasers' prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 2 (XLS 71KB)

Table 3 is the Use Table at basic prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 3 (XLS 95KB)

Table 4 is the Use Table for domestic inputs at basic prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 4 (XLS 96KB)

Table 5 is the Use Table for Imports €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 5 (XLS 76KB)

Table 6 is the Use Table for Trade margins €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 6 (XLS 65KB)

Table 7 is the Use Table for Taxes less Subsidies €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 7 (XLS 86KB)

Table 8 is the Symmetric Input-Output Table of total product flows at basic prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 8 (XLS 70KB)

Table 9 is the Symmetric Input-Output Table of domestic product flows at basic prices €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 9 (XLS 66KB)

Table 10 is the Input-Output Table of imported product flows €m: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 10 (XLS 48KB)

Table 11 are the Coefficients of domestic product flows: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 11 (XLS 69KB)

Table 12 is the Leontief inverse of domestic product flows with multipliers for other inputs: Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Table 12 (XLS 71KB)

Background Notes

1. Background to the Tables

The main aggregates in the Supply and Use tables (value added, final consumption, imports and exports) are consistent with the estimates shown in the publication National Income and Expenditure 2013 (NIE13) based on the revised European System of Accounts methodology (ESA 2010). However, the starting point of the tables is the CSO business surveys (e.g. Census of Industrial Production, the Prodcom Inquiry and Annual Services Inquiry). Considerable use is also made of published reports of government departments, semi-state bodies and financial institutions. Producing Supply and Use and Input-Output tables thus requires the examination of consistency and coherency of data and aggregates from national accounts, external trade statistics, balance of international payments results and data provided by the business surveys.

In general, data on purchases is more difficult to assemble than data on turnover. The manufacturing inputs in this 2011 publication however have been assembled from data gathered by the Census of Industrial Production (CIP) Inputs Survey of 2005 and 2010. This is a five-yearly survey of manufacturing industry which was conducted as an integral part of the 2005 and 2010 CIP. In the case of non-manufacturing industry, estimates were made based on data from the Annual Services Inquiry and on other limited information. A degree of balancing is necessary in the construction of any Supply and Use tables to fit the national accounts data with data from other surveys. Consequently allowances must be made for a lack of absolute accuracy in the figures in this report. They are overall estimates and not absolute definitive data.

The Supply and Use and Input-Output tables display details of the economy in terms of 58 industry groups and 58 product groups. The sectoral classification used is the two-digit level of the NACE Rev. 2 referred to as the A64 coding of industry activities. The product classification used is the sixty four product grouping referred to as the P64. The tables are initially constructed using 82 industry and 82 product groups and are then condensed for confidentiality and quality purposes. 

The basis of the methodology used is described in the Eurostat Manual of Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (see http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-RA-07-013/EN/KS-RA-07-013-EN.PDF) and in the UN Handbook of Input-Output Table Compilation and analysis (see http://unstats.un.org/unsd/EconStatKB/KnowledgebaseArticle10053.aspx).

 2. Overview of the Tables

Table 1 - 2011 Supply Table at basic prices (product by industry)

(See above for summary text and table)

This table provides estimates of the supply of goods and services (products) by domestic industries as well as imports of goods and services. The supply of products is presented in the rows while the columns show the industry branches that produce these goods and services. Each industry is classified according to whichever product accounts for the largest part of its output. Its principal production, shown on the diagonal elements of the Supply table, is therefore larger than its secondary production shown on the off-diagonal elements. A summary of the 2011 Supply table is shown above.

Treatment of the motor trade, retail and wholesale

The outputs of the distribution sector are defined in a special way for national accounts purposes and may not be as expected. The motor trade, retail and wholesale activities are regarded as producing a service which is measured as the price at which their products are sold minus the purchase price of these products (which they purchased for direct resale). This is referred to as the gross margin. Thus the retail supermarket is not regarded as providing food or drink nor is the drapery outlet regarded as providing clothes. In the Supply and Use framework, the food and clothes are the products of their respective industries or are imported and retailers are regarded as providing a sales service (see the distribution rows 45 – 47 of the Supply table).

The gross margin is also used to measure the output of distribution activity by firms that are mainly involved in another activity such as manufacturing.

Valuation

The values of the domestically produced products in the Supply table are shown initially at basic prices while they are transformed to purchasers’ prices in the final columns. Imports are shown at c.i.f. (carriage, insurance and freight inclusive) prices as in the published merchandise trade statistics.

The basic price is the price receivable by the producer for a unit of a good or service produced, minus any tax payable as a consequence of its production or sale (i.e. taxes on products), plus any subsidy receivable on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale (i.e. subsidies on products). Thus the basic price excludes the well-known product taxes such as VAT, excise duties, import duties etc. In theory, the basic price excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer but includes any transport charges charged on the same invoice. It does not include any trade margin earned by reselling the product by another trader following manufacture or importation. The basic price measures the amount retained by the producer and is therefore the price most relevant for the producer’s decision making.

The purchaser’s price is the price the purchaser actually pays for the product including any taxes less subsidies on the product (but excluding deductible taxes). The conversion from basic prices to purchasers’ prices involves distributing the trade margins of retailers and wholesalers among the products on which they are charged. The mechanism for doing this can be seen in the "trade margins" column of the Supply table. Here the margin in the motor trade and domestic wholesale and retail trades appears as negative values in rows 45 to 47 as these margins are distributed in the same column among the products on which they fall.

Table 2 - 2011 Use Table at purchasers' prices (product by industry)

(See above for summary text and table)

This table shows the use of products by domestic industry and by the final demand sectors ("final demand" comprises consumption by households, government, non-profit organisations serving households (NPISH), capital formation (GFCF) and exports). As in the previous table, industries are shown in the columns and products in the rows. Thus the columns of figures for industries NACE 1 - 97 show the goods and services used by each industry for the purposes of achieving its output. The purchases in these columns relate to intermediate consumption only. The capital purchases are shown separately but a breakdown by industry is not provided. All the purchases of households in their private (non-business) capacity as consumers are included under household consumption with the exception of the purchase of dwellings, which is included with gross fixed capital formation. The purchases include domestically produced and imported products indistinguishably.

Additional information for each industry is shown at the end of the industry columns, where estimates of the components of the gross value added by each industry are supplied. These are in the form of compensation of employees (COE), non-product (i.e. overhead) taxes (e.g. rates) and non-product subsidies (e.g. employment subsidies), net operating surplus (or profits) and consumption of capital (this term encompasses depreciation and amortisation). The latter two items, when combined, are referred to as gross operating surplus (GOS). The sum of these rows is referred to as the gross value added of the industry and is equal to the output of the industry minus its intermediate consumption costs. A summary of the 2011 Use table at purchasers' prices is shown above.

Valuation

The purchases of the products in the Use table are valued at purchasers’ prices, which have already been explained in the note on the Supply table above. There is no distinction in this table between imported and home produced products. The gross value added of the industries shown in the second last row, being equal to the output of the industries valued at basic prices minus their intermediate consumption at purchasers’ prices is regarded as being valued at basic prices.

Balancing the Supply Table with the Use Table

The total supply of each product in the last column of the Supply table is equal to the total use of the product in the last column of the Use table. Similarly, the total output of each industry in the last row of the Supply table is equal to the sum of the intermediate consumption and value added of that industry, which is the last row of the Use table.

Table 9 - Symmetric Input-Output Table for domestic output at basic prices

(See above for summary text and table)

This table is derived from the preceding Supply and Use and intermediate tables. The transformation of the Supply and Use tables to Input-Output tables is based on the commodity technology assumption (See Handbook of Input-Output Table Compilation and Analysis, United Nations Publication, Sales No. E99XVII.9, New York, 1999).

The domestic Input-Output table forms the basis of Table 12 which contains the Leontief inverse coefficients of domestic flows which are required by users of Input-Output techniques to assess the implications of changes in demand on the various sectors of the economy. It purports to show the use made of domestically produced products in the manufacture or provision of other products. A summary of the 2011 Input-Output table for domestic inputs is shown above.

The structure of the Input-Output table (I-O table) is similar to the structure of the Use table but differs in the following ways: 

  • The I-O table is product-by-product and thus shows the use of products in the production of other products.
  • Purchases are valued at basic prices. (The basic price is the price received by the producer for a good or service produced minus any tax payable as a consequence of its production plus any subsidy received as a consequence of its production. It excludes any trade margin. It is therefore the price retained by the producer.)
  • The I-O table in Table 9 is a domestic Input-Output table and thus shows the use made of domestically produced products in the production of other products. Information on the imports of goods and services for further production and for final consumption is provided in the imports row followed by a row of product taxes less subsidies. Adding the product taxes less subsidies to the values at basic prices converts the intermediate consumption to purchasers’ prices.

The I-O table is symmetric. The sum of the entries in any row is equal to the sum of the entries in the corresponding column. This is because total output of a product, shown at the end of a row, can be analysed into various costs going into its production, shown down the column. These column sums and row sums are equal to the total domestic supply of Table 1.

Table 12 – The Leontief inverse of domestic flows with multipliers for other inputs

If there is an increase in final demand for a particular product, we can assume that there will be an increase in the output of that product but also an increase in demand for other products (i.e. the intermediate consumption needed for the production of that product) and so on down the supply chain. Table 12 attempts to measure the complete direct and indirect impacts on the economy resulting from the increase in demand for domestic output of a given product. The Leontief inverse is derived from the Input-Output table.

The upper portion of Table 12 can be interpreted as follows, using products of agriculture, forestry and fishing as an example.

Each €1 of final demand for domestic output of products of agriculture, forestry and fishing requires:

€1.194 output of domestically produced agriculture, forestry and fishing;

€0.008 output of domestically produced mining and quarrying products;

€0.021 output of domestically produced food, beverage and tobacco products; etc.

The column sums shown in the row after product 97 are called output multipliers. These show how much direct and indirect output is required, across all domestic products per €1 final demand for the products named at the top of the column. But considerable duplication of output is included in this approach. For example, if an increase in the final demand of product A by €1, requires an increase of 90% of this amount of output of product B, then output of both products has been increased by €1.9. Gross outputs rather than net value added of products are combined in this table to give the column aggregates thereby giving rise to duplication of output. The duplication arises because product B is an ingredient in product A and its cost is absorbed in the final value of A, rather than added to the final value of A.

The lower portion of Table 12 shows the direct plus indirect effect on other inputs per €1 final demand. In each column the sum of the coefficients of imports, taxes less subsidies, compensation of employees, consumption of fixed capital and net operating surplus add to 1. They show, after all the cycles of production are completed, how the additional unit of final demand was spread over these categories. There is no duplication in these coefficients.

Within the 58 product groups, fifteen have import multipliers of value 0.15 or less and all of these come from the services sector. This implies that for €1 extra demand of home produced products from these product groups, less than 15% is spent indirectly on imports. The remainder, more than 85% of the €1, remains within the economy. The product groups with the lowest import multipliers include:

0.027 for Recreation services (NACE 93)

0.034 for Architectural and engineering services (NACE 71)

0.048 for Cultural and sporting services (NACE 90-92)

0.073 for Education services (NACE 85)

Conversely, the highest import multipliers include the following:

0.789 for Other transport equipment (NACE 30)

0.783 for Computer consultancy, data processing (NACE 62-63)

0.665 for Basic pharmaceutical products (NACE 21)

0.660 for Electronic equipment (NACE 27)

0.635 for Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding (NACE 65)

Of an extra €1 demand for these products, there is an import content of at least 60%.  One may observe that several codes with higher import multipliers are for products of manufacturing industries. These industries are dominated in Ireland by large multinational enterprises.

The domestic constituents of final demand are compensation of employees; net operating surplus; consumption of fixed capital; and taxes less subsidies. Multipliers for each of these are found in the last rows of the Leontief table.

These multipliers may be used for comparisons between branches. But care should be taken in their interpretation. For example, they take no account of outflows of profits and dividends from each branch and are thus related more to gross domestic product than to gross national product. They describe the effects of marginal increases in final demand and cannot strictly be applied to large changes. They do, however, recognise the interdependence of the various sectors of the economy and for this reason can be a useful tool in the area of impact analysis.

3. Consistency with other CSO Publications

Reconciliation with the National Accounts

In these tables the final demand aggregates and the components of value added are taken from the national accounts which provide control totals. This concordance is with the 2011 estimates as published in National Income and Expenditure 2013 (NIE13). The table below shows the aggregate figures in the 2011 Supply and Use tables (SUT) and Input-Output tables (I-O) that agree with figures from NIE13.

Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Background Notes Table A (XLS 12KB)

Comparison with other CSO sources

Although the Supply and Use tables are consistent with national accounts data published in NIE13 and thereby consistent with the balance of payments data compiled by the CSO, it is not possible to achieve full agreement with all CSO publications. The exercise of compiling Supply and Use tables helps to identify discrepancies that exist within different data sources. It is hoped that some of these discrepancies will be removed over time.

There are four main reasons for differences that occur between the aggregates presented in the Supply and Use tables and the aggregates presented in other publications, e.g. the Census of Industrial Production (CIP) and Annual Services Inquiry (ASI). Some examples of these are set out here.

Terminology

For the most part, the underlying definitions are consistent throughout CSO publications, but certain differences do arise. For example, the output in the Supply table is inclusive of freight and of the margin gained on goods resold without further processing. These two items are not part of the term ‘gross output’ in Table 1 of the CIP. Also the term ‘compensation of employees’ in national accounts includes the employer’s contribution to social insurance and other labour costs, which are not included in the wages and salaries variable in CIP and ASI.

Accounting practices

Some international sales by Irish companies are included in the CIP gross turnover but are treated on a net basis (i.e. sales less purchases) in the balance of payments. This can arise particularly where Irish companies sell products abroad which they have also purchased abroad. The products purchased may never have come into Ireland or undergone any further processing following purchase by the Irish enterprise.  Supply and Use adjusts the CIP data and includes the net amount as an export of a service. Conversely, there are companies manufacturing on a fee basis whose transactions may be recorded gross in the international trade statistics. This can arise where companies process goods for another company in their enterprise group abroad. The goods are imported and exported and may therefore have been included in the merchandise trade statistics although ownership of the goods did not change in the process. Generally in these cases the merchandise trade is adjusted to convert the goods imported and exported to a fee based service for use in the balance of payments and national accounts. In the case of telecommunications, some of the turnover in the ASI arises from importing and exporting telecommunications services, whereas balance of payments uses a net treatment. Supply and Use adopts the balance of payments practice in these situations.

Classifications

Output by product may be classified differently in the Prodcom Inquiry to the export statistics. This difficulty is corrected by realigning at a product level the production with the exports or vice versa. Sometimes the classifications in the two systems are quite unrelated. For example, what appears in one classification as a chemical may be classified as food and beverages in another system.

Conflicts in classification also occur at the overall activity level of companies. The company’s NACE code in the national accounts and balance of payments may differ from the NACE code used by CIP or ASI. Usually the classification used in the CIP or ASI is adopted in the Supply and Use tables. It can also happen that the mismatch highlights a problem that is resolved by transferring the company within the CIP or ASI.

Conflicting data

The Supply and Use tables are compiled using data from different sources. It is therefore not surprising that there are occasional instances of contradictory and conflicting information. Some examples are: the value of production by a company, measured in the CIP, may be less than their exports, measured by the international merchandise trade statistics; the value added of a company, measured by national accounts from administrative sources, may not concur with the same variable derived in the CIP or the ASI; compensation of employees calculated in national accounts based on employment figures can conflict with the wages and salaries figures in the CIP and ASI, which are assembled from company data. Reconciliation of these types of problem can result in differences between the variable presented in the Supply and Use tables and the same variable in the CIP or ASI.

Changes in the publication

The Supply & Use and Input-Output tables in the current publication are presented using the NACE Rev. 2 sectoral classification. 

In the 2010 tables a change was made to the treatment of NIE item 82(a) Net additions to the breeding stocks. Previously this was included in the changes in inventories figure (NIE item 82), but has been included in GFCF (NIE item 81).

There are three significant changes in treatment in the 2011 tables. These are the exclusion of purchases of goods for direct resale from the output of certain service industries, secondly the use of Balance of Payments (BOP) data to more comprehensively describe the secondary production of certain industries and thirdly the implementation of ESA 2010.

Exclusion of purchases of goods for direct resale from the output and intermediate consumption of certain service industries

There are three broad categories of NACE code in the Supply & Use tables (S&UT). There are NACE codes which are Census of Industrial Production (CIP) relevant (most of the manufacturing codes between NACE 5-39), NACE codes which are Annual Services Inquiry (ASI) relevant (many of the service codes between NACE 45-96) and other codes (for example Agriculture, forestry and fishing, Construction, Financial sector codes, Public administration codes). Up to 2010, there is good consistency between the CIP estimates of production value and the Supply table, except in cases where S&UT have specific treatment of output. However this was not mirrored in the ASI relevant codes. In the 'trade' ASI codes (motor trade NACE 45, wholesale trade NACE 46 and retail trade NACE 47) purchases for direct resale were deducted, as per the S&UT CIP treatment, leading to good consistency between the published ASI production value figure and the Supply table for these three codes. However such purchases were not deducted in the calculation of non-trade services output in the S&UT until the current (2011) estimates. Intermediate consumption included purchases for resale in the S&UT up to 2010; both output and intermediate consumption derived from the ASI for non-trade services up to 2010 were elevated, meaning Gross Value-Added (GVA) was not affected (as both sides of the GVA = output - intermediate consumption equation were elevated).

For the 2011 tables purchases for direct resale have been excluded from both output and intermediate consumption for the non-trade ASI NACE service codes in line with the previous treatment of the three ASI trade service codes and all the CIP codes. As described above, this reduces both the industry output and intermediate consumption totals, but GVA is not affected. This leads to greater consistency between the S&UT and the ASI published production value figures for these NACE codes.

What are the effects of the change?

Included below is a table with output from the ASI codes showing the effect of the deduction of purchases for direct resale in the 2011 Supply table and Use table. 

Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Background Notes Table B (XLS 13KB) ‌ 

Inclusion of additional secondary production figures in the Supply table using Balance of Payments (BOP) data

Individual firms and organisations are classified according to the products they make. If they produce more than one product, they are classified according to whichever product accounts for the largest component part of their output (€). Each industry produces what is termed to be its principal product (shown in the diagonal elements in the table) and many industries also produce a range of other products referred to as secondary production (shown in the off-diagonal cells) or by-products. In the domestic supply matrix it can be seen that generally (but not always) the bulk of the output of a particular product is by the corresponding industry.

Secondary production can reveal structural patterns in various industries and can spotlight changing patterns of production and consumption. The secondary production in manufacturing codes is calculated through analysis of the Prodcom data and applied to the Census of Industrial Production (CIP) output totals. The CIP includes a question on ‘other turnover’ which is examined company by company and assigned to relevant NACE product codes. The majority of secondary production items in the manufacturing codes are sourced from these Prodcom and CIP ‘other turnover’ sources. Secondary production is deducted from the main output of that NACE code ensuring consistency between the S&UT and the published CIP industry output total, the ‘production value’.

Within the Annual Services Inquiry (ASI) relevant NACE service codes there are secondary additions made to certain products based on known activities within particular industries. However there has previously been much fewer secondary products identified within particular service industries. For 2011 Balance of Payments (BOP) data has been used more comprehensively than previously in order to create a mirror Supply table.

There is a NACE code for each entity with a BOP credit so industries (columns) can be populated using the category code of the credit item. Figures used are consistent with the published BOP data. The consequence of this treatment is that the 2011 S&UT service codes have a greater number of secondary production figures than in the 2010 or previous tables. As for the manufacturing codes, for the service relevant ASI codes the total industry outputs are consistent with the published ASI ‘production value’ figures. A small number of service industries also have specific treatments for S&UT purposes. Consequently for the majority of ASI service codes, as for CIP codes, the secondary production is at the ‘expense’ of the main output of that particular NACE code, not in addition to it - i.e. the sum of the primary and secondary production figures is consistent with the published industry output total from the CIP/ASI. 

What are the effects of the change?

The following table describes the changes to the off-diagonal secondary production in the Supply table.

Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Background Notes Table C (XLS 12KB)

ESA 2010 implementation

National accounts are compiled in the EU according to the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA) framework. The estimates for 2011 are published for the first time on the ESA 2010 basis and are thus consistent with the National Income and expenditure 2013 (NIE2013) results already published by the CSO. For Ireland, the ESA 2010 change with the greatest impact on gross domestic product (GDP) is the new treatment of research and development (R&D) expenditure. Under ESA 95, R&D expenditure was treated as an ancillary cost to the main production of an enterprise, while under ESA 2010, R&D expenditure is recognised as capital investment. In addition to the ESA 2010 changes, the results include additional estimates for illegal economic activities in line with the requirement from the European statistical agency, Eurostat, to include such estimates in the National Accounts.

What are the effects of the change?

The following pair of tables compares Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) and Consumption of fixed capital (CFC) in the 2010 and 2011 Use tables. These are the items most impacted due to ESA 2010. It should be noted that differences between the 2010 and 2011 tables are simply indicative of changes due to ESA 2010, as changes year-on-year are to be anticipated irrespective of any methodological change.

Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Background Notes Table D (XLS 8KB)

Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 2011 Background Notes Table E (XLS 8KB)

Other changes in the publication

The NACE code split as well as the product versus non-product split of Taxes and Subsidies have been amended by National Accounts. This is most evident in NACE 1-3 (Agriculture, forestry and fishing) where the estimates provided in the Supply and Use tables are now consistent with the estimates provided in the Output, Input and Income in Agriculture (OIIA) release published by the CSO. 

Similarly, the NACE code split of Gross Operating Surplus (GOS), which is the sum of Net Operating Surplus (NOS) and Consumption of Fixed Capital (CFC) are available in greater detail and are consistent in most (but not all) codes with the estimates contained within the calculations for NIE Table 31 Gross Value Added at current basic prices.

Conventions used

 The following conventions are used throughout the tables of this publication:

                 " – "         is used to denote zero

                " 0 "         represents less than  €0.5 million but more than zero

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