Back to Top

Central Statistics Office

Search currently unavailable

 Skip navigation

Extra information
For more information on this release:
E-mail: environment@cso.ie Clare O'Hara (+353) 1 498 4208 Caroline Gibbons (+353) 1 498 4049 Berna Lawlor (+353) 1 498 4210
For general information on CSO statistics:
information@cso.ie (+353) 21 453 5000 Visit StatCentral.ie, the portal to Ireland's official statistics On-line ISSN 2009-7840
CSO statistical release, , 11am

Environmental Accounts Air Emissions

2016

Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector
'000 tonnes CO2 equivalent 
NACE Sector20122013201420152016 2015-2016 % change
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing18,57319,41319,17319,46920,006 2.8
Industry19,95418,78319,24720,28921,191 4.4
Services6,0756,0296,1536,4386,856 6.5
Households13,13513,39012,74413,23013,493 2.0
       
Total57,73657,61557,31659,42761,546 3.6

Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 3.6% in 2016

go to full release
  • Total greenhouse gas emissions increased by 3.6% to 61.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from 2015 to 2016 (see Headline Table)
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors increased in 2016: the services sector had the lowest share of emissions, but the largest percentage increase in emissions (see Headline Table)
  • Industry, household and services sector greenhouse gas emissions decreased overall since 2007, while agriculture, forestry and fishing emissions increased slightly (see Figure 1)
  • Emissions of the air pollutants ammonia, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and nitrogen oxides increased in 2016 (see Table 13)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

In 2016, the industry sector accounted for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions for the third year in a row, at 34.4% of the total. The share of emissions from agriculture, forestry and fishing in 2016 was 32.5%. Emissions from households made up 21.9% of the total, and the services sector produced 11.1% of total greenhouse gas emissions.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Emissions from agriculture, forestry and fishing fell from 19.3 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2007, to 18.2 million tonnes in 2011. Over the ten-year period from 2007 to 2016, emissions from this sector were lowest in 2011, and were at their highest in 2016 at 20.0 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. The trend can be observed in Figure 1 and data for 2007 to 2016 are shown in Table 1.

Industry

Emissions from the industry sector were 25.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2007, before decreasing sharply to 21.1 million tonnes by 2009. In 2013, emissions from the industry sector reached their lowest point in the ten-year period from 2007 to 2016, at 18.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. There was a steady increase in emissions from 2014 to 2016, and greenhouse gas emissions from industry were at 21.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2016. The energy supply sector, NACE 35, accounted for 57% of industry sector emissions in 2016 (see Figure 1 and Table 1). 

Services

Emissions from the services sector decreased year-on-year from 2007 to 2013, then increased each year from 2014 to 2016. Emissions from this sector were at their highest in 2007 at 8.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, and were lowest in 2013 at 6.1 million tonnes. In 2016, greenhouse gas emissions from the services sector were 6.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (see Figure 1 and Table 1).

Households

Emissions from households fell from 15.4 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008 to 12.7 million tonnes in 2014. Emissions increased in both 2015 and 2016 to reach 13.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (see Figure 1 and Table 1). Transport accounted for 54% of emissions from the household sector in 2016, while household heating accounted for a further 45%.

Carbon dioxideMethaneNitrous oxideFluorinated gases
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing1.1399879317312.65223199657666.211730559242550.00218
Industry19.5341829162370.8752640.2573872129508980.52396
Services6.260060715499670.0144662789347550.0822229784699320.49875
Households12.99388649153330.1634053696350.09369280863380.2424

Carbon dioxide was the main greenhouse gas emitted by the industry, household and services sectors in 2016, while emissions from agriculture, forestry and fishing were mainly of methane and nitrous oxide (see Figure 2).

Air Pollutant Emissions

Emissions of all air pollutants except ammonia decreased over the ten years from 2007 to 2016 (see Figure 3). In 2016, ammonia emissions were up 5.0% on 2015 and 7.5% on 2007, with the agriculture sector accounting for almost all ammonia emissions.

The largest decrease was in sulphur dioxide emissions, which fell by 74.8% since 2007. The trend in sulphur dioxide emissions can be seen in Figure 4, along with the sector distribution. The decrease is mainly due to the industry sector (in particular the electricity and gas supply industries), but year-on-year decreases in sulphur dioxide emissions from all sectors were observed.

Carbon monoxide emissions also decreased significantly between 2007 and 2016. The 45.4% decrease over this period was largely the result of a fall in emissions from household transport.

From 2015 to 2016, emissions of ammonia, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and nitrogen oxides increased, and emissions of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter decreased (see Table 13).

20072016
Sulphur dioxide54.66018913.770589
Nitrogen oxides159.949551112.27695
Ammonia108.58197116.72338
NMVOCs119.787076540515108.407575
Carbon monoxide187.922753102.561796
PM2.522.2291215.467712
PM1042.22593229.056346

The NACE sector distribution of emissions of each of the seven pollutants presented in this release is provided in Tables 5-11.

In 2016, the largest shares of carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and sulphur dioxide emissions were due to household activities, while the largest shares of ammonia, NMVOCs, PM10, and nitrogen oxide emissions resulted from agriculture, forestry and fishing.

The industry sector contributed between 20% and 48% of emissions of all air pollutants except ammonia, and the services sector was responsible for less than 10% of air pollutant emissions other than nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide.

Agriculture, Forestry and FishingIndustryServicesHouseholds
20070.8030455604641.0810887226972.054043477632410.7220112392106
20080.39188087549734.3582294577761.16667894013769.28043872658938
20090.45343961591821.9457030119370.86079432831889.1799130438262
20100.39549733539716.2752142311440.84858551233828.8260339211208
20110.10770418114115.831630190950.8293465840588.069881043851
20120.1220280290914.7747903283960.83063128310287.6409483594112
20130.11209191281314.3508788195470.73331268413468.3128075835054
20140.0740049435619.360684380250.44185079881187.0177098773772
20150.0622001257047.79172364230.4375705631646.719704668832
20160.0576566611926.5887297621590.4341000983536.690102478296

 

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Adjustment to Residence Principle

The national emissions inventories produced annually by the Environmental Protection Agency present emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants according to the territorial principle, i.e. they include emissions originating from the geographic territory of Ireland.

Air emissions accounts are compiled according to national accounts principles. They record emissions arising from the activities of resident units of Ireland, regardless of where these emissions occur geographically. The data presented in the headline table and in Tables 1-13 are territorial emissions, while provisional data on residence principle emissions are shown in Table 14. Further information is provided in the background notes to this release.

 

Table 1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4, HFC, PFC, SF6, NF3) by NACE Sector   '000 tonnes CO2 equivalent
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)19,27519,09518,65318,82518,18718,57319,41319,17319,46920,006
           
Industry (05-43)25,69725,41621,10820,95319,02619,95418,78319,24720,28921,191
Mining and quarrying (05-09)452414337284262250271290287327
Food products, beverages and tobacco products (10-12)1,4501,4441,3521,2801,1151,0831,1991,1851,1851,154
Textiles, wearing apparel and leather products (13-15)19191814651091010
Wood and paper products and printing (16-18)1101049089455479767883
Coke and refined petroleum products (19)361368316311286314295280359314
Chemicals and chemical products (20)223142889493108134119123145
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations (21)238298306279257256244237245214
Rubber and plastic products and other non-metallic mineral products (22-23)4,7554,2262,7562,4102,1472,4942,4242,9853,2283,456
Basic metals and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment (24-25)1,5721,5721,2511,5541,5191,4991,4741,4761,4831,341
Computer, electronic and optical products (26)442442333239125119131114143163
Electrical equipment (27)86594649424249524756
Machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified (28)52766490605764646469
Transport equipment (29-30)31242518101111111112
Furniture; other manufacturing; repair and installation of machinery and equipment (31-33)189199175172115123134131134124
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (35)14,10714,20212,65312,93211,57312,30210,88810,70111,25412,000
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (36-39)9021,2879167897677168671,0471,1651,213
Construction (41-43)707539382349605522509469473510
           
Services (45-96)8,1837,4466,8766,4996,2876,0756,0296,1536,4386,856
           
Households14,90215,38414,96414,95613,60613,13513,39012,74413,23013,493
           
Total greenhouse gas emissions68,05667,34161,60161,23357,10657,73657,61557,31659,42761,546
Table 2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions'000 tonnes C02
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)1,4731,3951,2971,3561,2391,0721,3061,0951,0931,140
           
Industry (05-43)24,17024,12920,07719,96017,96118,98317,61017,86118,79819,534
Mining and quarrying (05-09)404374313262239227249258255295
Food products, beverages and tobacco products (10-12)1,2791,3001,1931,1219539241,0079821,001899
Textiles, wearing apparel and leather products (13-15)1919181365109910
Wood and paper products and printing (16-18)1091038988445478757782
Coke and refined petroleum products (19)360367315310285313294279358313
Chemicals and chemical products (20)222142879392107132118122144
Basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations (21)237297304277256254243236244213
Rubber and plastic products and other non-metallic mineral products (22-23)4,7434,2142,7482,4022,1402,4852,4142,9733,2163,443
Basic metals and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment (24-25)1,5681,5681,2481,5501,5161,4961,4711,4741,4811,339
Computer, electronic and optical products (26)201260223169838795909298
Electrical equipment (27)57351922141416151617
Machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified (28)42655681514954535458
Transport equipment (29-30)3023251891111111112
Furniture; other manufacturing; repair and installation of machinery and equipment (31-33)15918615915793105114110112103
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (35)13,93314,00512,46612,74511,40412,13610,73610,55411,11411,844
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (36-39)140663462335205230216197199202
Construction (41-43)668508351317570487469426435463
           
Services (45-96)7,7277,0266,4276,0505,8295,6245,5195,6055,9386,260
           
Households14,25314,75014,30814,31312,98112,51712,74712,12012,61612,994
           
Total carbon dioxide emissions47,62347,30042,10941,68038,00938,19537,18336,68238,44439,928
Table 3 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions'000 tonnes N2O
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)19.819.719.220.318.919.521.020.420.420.8
           
Industry (05-43)0.80.90.90.90.80.80.80.80.80.9
           
Services (45-96)0.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.3
           
Households0.40.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.3
           
Total nitrous oxide emissions21.421.220.721.820.420.922.421.821.922.3
Table 4 Methane (CH4) Emissions'000 tonnes CH4
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)475.6473.1465.7456.6451.9467.4474.1479.5491.3506.1
           
Industry (05-43)31.024.716.716.220.016.722.830.634.135.0
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (36-39)26.420.713.513.217.314.220.528.131.832.8
Other industry4.64.03.23.02.72.52.32.52.32.2
 
Services (45-96)0.60.60.60.60.60.60.70.70.50.6
           
Households8.18.69.08.67.97.78.17.07.06.5
           
Total methane emissions515.3507.0492.0482.0480.5492.4505.6517.7532.9548.2
Table 5 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions'000 tonnes SO2
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)0.80.40.50.40.10.10.10.10.10.1
           
Industry (05-43)41.134.421.916.315.814.814.49.47.86.6
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (35)30.825.215.79.59.49.68.76.05.23.7
Other industry10.29.26.36.86.55.25.73.42.62.9
           
Services (45-96)2.11.20.90.80.80.80.70.40.40.4
           
Households10.79.39.28.88.17.68.37.06.76.7
           
Total sulphur dioxide emissions54.745.232.426.324.823.423.516.915.013.8
Table 6 Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Emissions'000 tonnes NOx
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)43.042.039.840.236.436.838.837.336.837.5
           
Industry (05-43)53.044.628.425.720.324.323.022.524.123.1
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (35)27.322.013.311.58.010.38.67.69.58.0
Other industry25.622.615.114.212.314.014.414.914.615.1
           
Services (45-96)41.438.033.530.428.927.327.128.629.130.4
           
Households22.621.921.120.719.519.620.320.021.221.3
           
Total nitrogen oxide emissions159.9146.5122.8117.0105.0107.9109.1108.4111.3112.3
Table 7 Ammonia (NH3) Emissions'000 tonnes NH3
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)106.2107.4108.2106.4102.8104.8106.5107.0110.0115.6
           
Industry (05-43)0.30.20.20.30.20.20.20.30.30.3
           
Services (45-96)0.20.20.20.10.10.10.10.10.10.1
           
Households1.91.91.71.41.31.11.00.90.80.7
           
Total ammonia emissions108.6109.7110.3108.3104.4106.3107.8108.3111.2116.7
Table 8 Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound (NMVOC) Emissions'000 tonnes NMVOC
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)42.942.842.641.541.242.543.243.043.444.2
           
Industry (05-43)35.833.032.833.032.233.735.032.934.134.7
           
Services (45-96)8.77.66.65.95.65.14.84.64.54.5
           
Households32.431.831.029.127.726.727.425.724.725.0
           
Total NMVOC emissions119.8115.3113.0109.5106.7108.1110.5106.3106.7108.4
Table 9 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emissions'000 tonnes CO
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)3.23.12.62.32.12.01.81.61.51.4
           
Industry (05-43)36.333.126.427.926.628.625.626.728.729.1
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply (35)20.017.814.816.316.018.916.115.617.918.3
Other industry16.415.311.611.610.69.79.511.110.810.9
           
Services (45-96)20.719.116.114.213.412.311.711.411.010.7
           
Households127.7125.0113.7100.791.883.979.772.167.561.3
           
Total carbon monoxide emissions187.9180.3158.8145.2133.9126.8118.8111.8108.6102.6
Table 10 Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions'000 tonnes PM2.5
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)2.52.52.32.22.12.22.12.12.12.2
           
Industry (05-43)7.66.86.45.44.14.24.04.24.44.5
           
Services (45-96)1.91.81.51.31.31.21.11.11.00.9
 
Households10.210.611.110.59.79.59.98.68.67.9
           
Total PM2.5 emissions22.221.621.319.517.317.017.216.116.215.5
Table 11 Particulate Matter (PM10) Emissions'000 tonnes PM10
NACE Rev. 22007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (01-03)10.611.110.910.710.610.610.510.510.410.5
           
Industry (05-43)18.717.015.214.28.38.38.38.48.88.9
           
Services (45-96)2.11.91.61.51.51.41.31.31.31.3
           
Households10.911.211.610.910.29.910.49.19.18.4
          
Total PM10 emissions42.241.139.237.330.630.230.529.229.729.1
Table 12 Greenhouse Gas Emissions'000 tonnes
GasUnit2007200820092010201120122013201420152016
CO2 emissions CO247,62347,30042,10941,68038,00938,19537,18336,68238,44439,928
            
N2O emissionsN2O21212122202122222222
            
CH4 emissionsCH4515507492482480492506518533548
            
HFC, PFC, SF6, NF3 emissionsCO2 equivalent1,1751,0371,0381,0121,0169961,1231,1831,1421,267
Table 13 Air Pollutant Emissions'000 tonnes
Pollutant2007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Sulphur dioxide emissions55453226252324171514
           
Nitrogen oxide emissions160146123117105108109108111112
           
Ammonia emissions109110110108104106108108111117
           
NMVOC emissions120115113109107108111106107108
           
Carbon monoxide emissions188180159145134127119112109103
           
PM2.5 emissions22222119171717161615
           
PM10 emissions42413937313031293029
Table 14 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Adjustment to Residence Principle'000 tonnes CO2 equivalent
 2010201120122013201420152016
Total CO2 equivalent emissions, calculated on territorial basis, as reported to UNFCCC61,23357,10657,73657,61557,31659,42761,546
        
Transport emissions by residents abroad less transport emissions by non-residents on the territory7,3357,4288,0006,7627,4117,8689,189
       
Total CO2 equivalent emissions, calculated on residence basis, as reported to Eurostat68,56864,53465,73664,37764,72767,29570,735

Background Notes

Environmental Accounts, Air Emissions

Introduction                        

The air emissions accounts classify emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants by emitting economic sector, and by households.

Data sources                     

The figures presented in this release are based on the air emissions inventories submitted annually by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the United Nations under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and under the CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution).

Revisions                            

This release incorporates revisions to the air emissions estimates previously published by the CSO, including the revisions made by the EPA to the annual national air emissions inventory.

Greenhouse gases           

The three main greenhouse gases included in this publication are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4).  As greenhouse gas emissions from human activities increase, they build up in the atmosphere, warming it through the greenhouse effect.  Because many of the major greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for tens to hundreds of years after being released, their warming effects on the climate persist over a long time and can therefore affect both present and future generations.

Carbon dioxide emissions are the result of burning fossil fuels such as coal, turf and petroleum for heat, power and transport.  Industrial processes such as cement production also emit CO2.

Nitrous oxide emissions arise from nitrogen fertilisers used in agriculture and a small number of industrial processes.

Methane emissions are caused by the digestive systems of ruminant animals, waste water treatment plants and landfill sites.

There are other greenhouse gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). The emissions from these fluorinated gases account for approximately 2% of the total greenhouse gas emissions for Ireland, and are included in the total of greenhouse gases in Tables 1 and 12. 

Global warming potential

Greenhouse gas emissions by different gases are compared using the global warming potentials (GWPs) for a 100-year time horizon from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report of 2007. The GWP is a measure of the global warming effect of a given mass of a greenhouse gas compared with the global warming effect of the same mass of carbon dioxide. The GWP for methane is 25 and that of nitrous oxide is 298. The GWPs of the fluorinated gases vary, but many are in the thousands or tens of thousands.

Greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide may be converted into tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by multiplying their masses by their global warming potentials. For example, 35,000 tonnes of methane are equivalent to 875,000 (i.e. 35,000 x 25) tonnes of carbon dioxide for a 100-year time horizon. Further details are available at the IPCC website (https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch2s2-10-2.html).

 

Air pollutants      

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a gas which is formed when sulphur-containing fuels (mainly coal and oil) are burned in power stations.  Exposure to high concentrations of SO2 can lead to breathing difficulties for people with long-term respiratory conditions such as asthma.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are produced during combustion at high temperatures and by agricultural activity; the main sources in Ireland are vehicles, inorganic fertilisers and animal manure, and power stations. The industrial sector is also a significant contributor to NOx levels, particularly the cement production industry.  Exposure to NOx is linked to adverse respiratory effects, and long-term exposure increases the risk of respiratory infection in children.

Ammonia (NH3) emissions arise primarily from animal manure and nitrogen-based fertilisers.  Exposure to high levels of ammonia may irritate the skin, eyes, throat and lungs.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are emitted as gases by a wide array of products including paints, paint strippers, glues, adhesives and cleaning agents.  They also arise as a product of incomplete combustion of fuels and are a component of car exhaust emissions. A further significant source is agricultural activity.  Exposure to NMVOCs can lead to eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea and damage to the liver, kidney and central nervous system.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless gas, formed from incomplete oxidation during combustion of fuel.  Emissions of CO in Ireland are mostly vehicle emissions, although fuel combustion for household heating also contributes.  Concentrations of CO tend to be higher in areas with heavy traffic congestion.  Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream through the lungs, where it affects the body’s uptake of oxygen.  Exposure in ambient air is most serious for people with cardiovascular diseases.

Particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microns (PM2.5), or ‘fine’ particulate matter, is composed of a mixture of solids and liquids. Depending on the source of the matter these can include acids (nitrates and sulphates), volatile organic compounds, soil, metals and dust particles.  The main source of fine particulate matter in Ireland is fuel combustion for household heating. The main sources of particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter 10 microns (PM10) in Ireland are agricultural activities, such as the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilisers, and household heating.  The adverse health impact of particulate matter arises from its ability to penetrate deep into the respiratory tract.

Forestry and soil sequestration    

No adjustment has been made for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest or soil sequestration.

NACE allocation            

Emissions are distributed across NACE sectors according to the correspondences between Common Reporting Format (CRF)/Nomenclature For Reporting (NFR) codes in the Air Emissions Inventories and NACE Rev. 2 sectors. 

In some cases, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the CRF/NFR codes and a NACE Rev. 2 sector.  In this case, the total emissions from this CRF/NFR code are attributed to that NACE Rev. 2 sector.  In many cases, a single CRF/NFR corresponds to more than one NACE sector.  In these cases, emissions are assigned across NACE sectors by the CSO using data on fuel use by each NACE sector.

Data for all years have been presented using the NACE Rev. 2 classification, which came into effect in 2008. 

Electricity and gas supply           

Emissions from the production of electricity and gas are allocated to the suppliers of energy rather than the end users, and so are allocated to NACE Rev. 2 division 35 (Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply).

Road transport              

Road transport emissions are attributed to economic sectors according to the principal activity of the business.  If the transport of passengers and freight is the principal activity of a business, then the related emissions are attributed to NACE Rev. 2 division 49 (Land transport).  If road transport is a secondary or ancillary activity to the main business, then the related road transport emissions are allocated to the main NACE division of the enterprise. 

The Environmental Protection Agency’s detailed modelled road transport emissions data are combined with CSO Road Freight Transport data, private vehicle registration data and road traffic volumes data to allocate road transport usage across NACE sectors. 

There is one CRF/NFR code for road transport in the EPA Air Emissions Inventory.  This emissions figure is generally distributed across NACE sectors using data on transport fuel use by each NACE sector. 

Road freight transport data are allocated initially by using the tonne-km data collected by the CSO.  This data allocates emissions to the main NACE sectors responsible for road freight as identified in the CSO Road Freight Transport Survey.  For the remaining unspecified sectors, emissions are attributed across NACE sectors using expenditure on transport fuel by each NACE sector.

Emissions from private cars are split into household vehicles, small Public Service Vehicles (which are assigned to NACE 49) and company cars. Emissions from buses are allocated to NACE 49.  Emissions from motorcycles are allocated to households.

Landfill waste                     

Landfill waste accounts for approximately 4-6% of methane (CH4) emissions.  The NACE Rev. 2 classification for waste treatment is NACE 37-39 (Sewerage and Waste management).  Most landfill sites are owned and operated by local authorities who are categorised under NACE 84 (Public Administration and Defence).  However, all CH4 emissions from landfill waste have been classified under NACE 37-39, as this is the NACE sector of the local unit.

Adjustment from Territorial Principle to Residence Principle

National emissions inventories present emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants that originate from the geographic territory of a given country. Air emissions accounts form part of the implementation by Eurostat of a series of environmental-economic accounts which are designed to be compatible with the concepts and principles of national accounts. Therefore, the air emissions accounts record emissions arising from the activities of resident units of a given national economy, regardless of where these emissions occur geographically. According to the national accounts definition of residence, an economic unit is a resident unit of a country when it has engaged for at least one year in economic activity in that territory.

For example, the road transport emissions of an Irish haulier driving in France are not included in Ireland's emissions inventory under the territorial principle, but are included under the residence principle. Similarly, the emissions arising from the activity of an Irish airline flying from England to Italy are assigned to Ireland under the residence principle but not under the territorial principle.

On the other hand, the road transport emissions of a German tourist driving in Ireland are included in the inventory as territorial emissions but are excluded from air emissions accounts.

The air emissions data presented in this release are compiled using the "inventory-first" approach. This approach takes the national inventory totals as a starting point, makes a residence principle adjustment, and allocates resident emissions to NACE categories and households. The adjustment to resident emissions is challenging and data collection on this aspect of the accounts is still in development. However, in Table 14 of this release there are provisional data on transport emissions by Irish residents abroad and on transport emissions by non-residents in Ireland.

upArrowHide Background Notes

Scan the QR code below to view this release online or go to
http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/er/eaae/environmentalaccountsairemissions2016/