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CSO statistical release, 19 October 2016, 11am

Crime and Victimisation, Quarterly National Household Survey

Q3 2015

Victims of crime 1998 - 2015
  %
 Household CrimePersonal Crime
201585
201094
2006115
2003125
1998122

Personal crime increases by 1%, household crime continues to fall.

Percentage of households who have experienced crime 1998 - 2015

Fall in household crime rates between 2010 and 2015

In the year ending Q3 2015, 8% of households experienced crime. This was a modest reduction on the 2010 figure of 9%. Household crime in the year ending Q3 2015 was at its lowest level since the Crime and Victimisation survey began in 1998 when it was 12%. The percentage of households experiencing vandalism in the year ending Q3 2015 was 2% compared with 3% in 2010 and 5% in 2006. The number of households experiencing a burglary was unchanged at 3%.  In 48% of cases there was somebody present in the house when the burglary took place. See tables 1.1 and 1.5.

The level of household crime in Dublin was higher than any other region at 13%, while it was only 3% in the West. Households located in an urban area were two and a half times more likely to become victims of crime compared to households in rural areas (10% versus 4%).  Households in the most affluent areas of the country had the highest rate of victimisation at 13% compared to around 7%  for other areas. See table 1.2. 

This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.

Males aged 18-24 more likely to become a victim of crime

There was a slight increase in the level of personal crime experienced by those aged 18 and over.  In the year ending Q3 2015, 5% of individuals were affected by crime versus 4% of in the 2010 survey. The percentage of individuals who experienced assault, theft with violence and theft without violence was unchanged from 2010 at 1%, 1% and 2% respectively.  Nearly a quarter (22%) of all victims of theft had a smartphone stolen.  The incidence of internet fraud was surveyed for the first time in the year ending Q3 2015 when 2% of individuals were victims of this crime. See tables 2.1 and 2.5.

Males in the 18-24 age group were the most likely individuals to experience a crime. In the year ending Q3 2015, 7% of men in this group were victims of crime while the corresponding figure for females in the same age group was 6%.  Men and women aged over 65 were least likely to become a victim of crime with only 3% doing so. The rate of victimisation for non-Irish nationals was slightly higher than Irish nationals with rates of 6% and 5% respectively. See table 2.2. 

62% of household crime is reported to the Gardaí

More than six in ten (62%) households who suffered crime reported it to the Gardaí. Burglary was the crime which was most likely to be reported at 73% while vandalism was least likely to be reported with only 50% of victims choosing to do so. A total of 41% of respondents cited the fact that a crime was not serious enough or no loss was suffered as the reason they chose not to report a crime. A further 26% of households believed the Gardaí could do nothing about the crime.  See tables 1.3 and 1.4.

Over half (54%) of all crimes against individuals were reported to the Gardaí. However there was a wide variety in reporting rates with 70% of victims of non-violent theft reported the crime while only 32% of fraud victims chose to do so.  Almost three in ten (28%) of victims of theft did not report the crime as they believed the Gardaí could do nothing.  See tables 2.3 and 2.4. 

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Reasons for not reporting household crime - all crimes
Did not wish to
involve Gardai
4
Not serious
enough
/no loss
40.8
Fear of
reprisal
1.2
Solved it myself2.7
Believed Gardai
would do nothing
14.6
Believed
Gardai
could
do nothing
25.8
Did not
have time
0.7
Other reasons8.3
No insurance claim1.9
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Reasons for not reporting personal crime - all crimes
Did not wish to
involve Gardai
4
Not serious
enough
/no loss
23.2
Fear of
reprisal
2.4
Solved it
myself
13.1
Believed Gardai
would do nothing
6.6
Believed Gardai
could do nothing
19.3
Did not
have time
1.4
Other
reasons
28.3
No insurance
claim
1.6

41% of people express confidence in the criminal justice system

Over six in ten people (61%) do not worry about becoming a victim of crime. People in the 18 – 24 age group were least likely to worry about victimisation 24% compared to 48% of those aged over 65. Non-Irish nationals were less likely to worry about becoming a victim with 69% declaring that they did not worry. The comparable figure for Irish nationals is 60%. Only 26% of people said that fear of crime has affected their quality of life. This figure falls to 16% for 18-24 year olds. 

An average of 24% of people surveyed felt that crime in their local area was a serious problem. This figure was highest in the Mid-East at 35%.  The lowest level of concern was in the West where it was 13%. A total of 41% of people expressed confidence in the criminal justice system. This figure is unchanged from the 2010 figure. There has been an increase in the percentage of people who rate the Gardaí in their area as poor or very poor from 13% in 2010 to 18% in 2015. See tables 3.3 to 3.6.

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Level of confidence of those 18 and over in the criminal justice system
Very confident4.2
Fairly confident36.6
Not very
confident
34.3
Not at all
confident
20
Not stated4.9
Table 1.1 Households classified by whether they experienced crime, 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
      %
 VandalismBurglaryTheft of vehicles1Theft from vehicles1Theft of bicycles1Victims of any crime2
      
2015231338
2010331219
20065313411
20035313412
       
1 Percentage is based on households with a motor vehicle or bicycle respectively.
2 A household could experience more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes. This figure is based on all households.
Table 1.2 Households that experienced crime classified by region, location and level of deprivation, 2015
        %
  VandalismBurglaryTheft of vehicles1Theft from vehicles1Theft of bicycles1Victims of any crime2Unweighted sample (number of persons)
       
All households23133812,969
        
Region        
 Border23<0.52161,520
 Midland35<0.5229738
 West12<0.51131,214
 Dublin34167133,635
 Mid-East2312271,271
 Mid-West22<0.53171,010
 South-East23<0.52261,609
 South- West23<0.51261,972
         
Number of persons in household      
 1 person33<0.52472,957
 2 persons23<0.52373,854
 3 or more persons2313396,158
         
Urban/rural location         
 Urban areas34145108,236
 Rural areas13<0.51144,733
         
         
Depreviation/affluence3        
Very affluent23156112,293
Affluent23<0.53272,772
Average2312272,537
Disadvantaged24<0.52272,612
 Very disadvantaged3313382,755
         
1 Percentage is based on households with a motor vehicle or bicycle respectively.
2 A household could experience more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
3 Levels of deprivation/affluence analysed according to the Pobal HP index, see background notes for further information.
Table 1.3 All households, who were victims of crime and reported the incident to the Gardaí, 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
                      %
 Reported to Gardaí
VandalismBurglaryTheft from carsVictims of any crime1
     
    
201550736062
2010557567n/a
2006437058n/a
2003396960n/a
     
1 Any crime includes vandalism, burglary, theft from cars, theft of cars, theft of bicycles. A person could be the victim of more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
Table 1.4 Households classified by details of why an incident was not reported to the Gardaí, 2015
    %
Why incident not reported to the GardaíExperienced vandalismExperienced burglaryExperienced theft from carVictims of any crime1
 
Believed Gardai could do nothing21262026
Believed Gardai would do nothing15161315
Did not have time1011
Did not wish to involve Gardai3534
Fear of reprisal1201
No insurance claim2142
Not serious enough/no loss46394641
Other reasons67128
Solved it myself4413
Total100100100100
     
1 Any crime includes vandalism, burglary, theft from cars, theft of cars, theft of bicycles. A person could be the victim of more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
Table 1.5 Burglaries classified by details of the crime, 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
 Somebody at homeUse or threat of weapon1Burgled more than once
  
201548417
201049512
200651515
200354616
1 Refers to burglaries where there was somebody at home at the time.
Table 2.1 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by whether they were victims of crime, 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
     %
 Violent theftNon-violent theftPhysical assault Fraud1Victims of any crime2
    
201512125
2010121n/a4
2006131n/a5
2003131n/a5
1 Fraud data not available prior to 2015.
2 Total victims of any crime included a dedicated category entitled "victims of mobile phone theft" in 2010.
Table 2.2 All persons aged 18 years and over who experienced crime classified by region, sex, age and nationality, 2015
       %
  Violent theftNon-violent theftPhysical assault Fraud1Victims of any crime2Unweighted sample3 (number of persons)
 
All persons1212521,429
      
Region       
Border<0.52<0.5242,445
Midland<0.53<0.5151,106
West<0.521242,134
Dublin131375,981
Mid-East<0.521352,134
Mid-West121351,599
South-East<0.52<0.5242,600
South-West12<0.5243,430
     
Sex     
Male1312510,054
Female<0.52<0.52511,375
      
Males by age group      
18-2422227944
25-44131263,488
45-64<0.531253,551
65 +<0.51<0.5132,071
       
Females by age group      
18-2414126873
25-44131364,174
45-64<0.52<0.5353,949
65 +<0.52<0.5132,379
       
All persons by age group     
18-24131261,817
25-44131367,662
45-64<0.53<0.5357,500
65 +<0.51<0.5134,450
       
Nationality       
Irish nationals1212519,510
Non-Irish nationals131361,919
        
1 Fraud data not available prior to 2015.
2 A household could experience more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
3 See Background Notes.
Table 2.3 All persons aged 18 years and over who were victims of crime and reported the incident to the Gardaí 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
     %
 Violent theftNon-violent theftFraud1AssaultVictim of any crime2
    
20155870325854
20106463n/a5558
20066152n/a5354
20035954n/a5155
      
1 Fraud data not available prior to 2015.
2 An individual could experience more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
Table 2.4 All persons aged 18 and over classified by why incident was not reported to the Gardaí, 2015
   %
Why incident not reported to the GardaíTheft1FraudVictim of any crime 2
    
Believed Gardai could do nothing281519
Believed Gardai would do nothing1337
Did not have time111
Did not wish to involve Gardai334
Fear of reprisal512
No insurance claim132
Not serious enough/no loss262123
Other reasons173728
Solved it myself71613
Total100100100
    
1 Theft data is combination of violent and non-violent data.
2 Any crime includes vandalism, burglary, theft from cars, theft of cars, theft of bicycles. A person could be the victim of more than one crime hence the figure will not necessarily equal the sum of all crimes.
Table 2.5 All persons aged 18 years and over who were victims of theft1 classified by details of the incident, 2015, 2010, 2006 and 2003
  %
 Smartphone stolen2Suffered more than one theft
 
20152321
2010n/a14
2006n/a17
2003n/a19
1 Theft data is combination of violent and non-violent data.
2Smartphone data not available prior to 2015.
Table 3.1 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by their perception of crime in their local area, 2015
        %
  Very serious problemSerious problemFairly serious problemNot a serious problemNot a problemNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
       
All persons26164431113,486
       
Region        
 Border1415413811,624
 Midland371744301817
 West12103453<0.51,306
 Dublin3819492013,694
 Mid-East3626461911,269
 Mid-West14155030<0.51,032
 South-East1413453711,693
 South-West2511414112,051
        
Sex        
 Male2515453215,511
 Female2617443017,975
         
Males by age group       
 18-24251247331279
 25-442416463211,816
 45-642715453112,005
 65 +2616413411,411
         
Females by age group       
 18-24331646321287
 25-442618442913,000
 45-6426184430<0.52,871
 65 +2614443311,817
         
All persons by age group       
 18-24341446321566
 25-442517453114,816
 45-642617453014,876
 65 +2615433413,228
         
Nationality       
 Irish nationals26164531112,204
 Non-Irish nationals2515433321,282
        
1 See Background Notes.
Table 3.2 All persons aged 18 and over classified by how they are affected by anti-social behaviour, 2015
       %
  Very big problemFairly big problemNot a very big problemNot a problem at allNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
        
All persons393255113,486
       
Region      
 Border16296311,624
 Midland283457<0.5817
 West151777<0.51,306
 Dublin414384313,694
 Mid-East311374911,269
 Mid-West193357<0.51,032
 South-East27316011,693
 South-West382959<0.52,051
        
Sex      
 Male29325615,511
 Female310335417,975
        
Males by age group      
 18-2411034541279
 25-4429315611,816
 45-64293356<0.52,005
 65 +293059<0.51,411
        
Females by age group4123450<0.5287
 18-24411325113,000
 25-44393256<0.52,871
 45-6437325811,817
 65 +      
        
All persons by age group      
 18-2431134521566
 25-44310335414,816
 45-64293256<0.54,876
 65 +283159<0.53,228
        
Nationality      
 Irish nationals393256012,204
 Non-Irish nationals311325211,282
        
1 See Background Notes.
Table 3.3 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by whether they worry about becoming a victim of crime, 2015
       %
  Yes, personal injuryYes, property theft and damageYes, both personal and propertyNoNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
    
All persons363061<0.513,486
       
Region      
 Border45266511,624
 Midland762958<0.5817
 West252469<0.51,306
 Dublin373456<0.53,694
 Mid-East273358<0.51,269
 Mid-West273457<0.51,032
 South-East352468<0.51,693
 South-West343062<0.52,051
        
Sex      
 Male362665<0.55,511
 Female463456<0.57,975
        
Males by Age Group      
 18-243313801279
 25-44272269<0.51,816
 45-64362961<0.52,005
 65 +263656<0.51,411
        
Females by Age Group     
 18-244420711287
 25-44473258<0.53,000
 45-64453655<0.52,871
 65 +464249<0.51,817
        
All persons by age group     
 18-244416761566
 25-44372763<0.54,816
 45-64463358<0.54,876
 65 +363952<0.53,228
Nationality      
      
 Irish nationals363160<0.512,204
 Non-Irish nationals45226911,282
        
1 See Background Notes.
Table 3.4 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by how much fear of crime has affected their quality of life, 2015
        %
  Greatly reduced qualitySignificantly reduced qualityModerately reduced qualityReduced quality a littleNo effect on qualityNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
         
All persons1271673<0.513,486
        
Region       
 Border1261477<0.51,624
 Midland25813720817
 West1171081<0.51,306
 Dublin1291869<0.53,694
 Mid-East1261576<0.51,269
 Mid-West127207101,032
 South-East1151479<0.51,693
 South-West127196912,051
         
Sex       
 Male1261478<0.55,511
 Female2281869<0.57,975
         
Males by age group       
 18-241129881279
 25-441151380<0.51,816
 45-641271477<0.52,005
 65 +2391967<0.51,411
         
Females by age group       
 18-2412611801287
 25-441171773<0.53,000
 45-641291968<0.52,871
 65 +3411245811,817
         
All persons by age group       
 18-2412410841566
 25-441161576<0.54,816
 45-641281772<0.54,876
 65 +24112162<0.53,228
         
Nationality       
Irish nationals1271673<0.512,204
Non-Irish nationals116167511,282
         
1 See Background Notes.
Table 3.5 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by their confidence in the criminal justice system, 2015
       %
  Very confidentFairly confidentNot very confidentNot at all confidentNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
     
All persons4373420513,486
       
Region      
 Border5313520101,624
 Midland33126355817
 West547261751,306
 Dublin538331943,694
 Mid-East327392561,269
 Mid-West435411821,032
 South-East429432041,693
 South-West446301642,051
        
Sex      
 Male436342155,511
 Female437351957,975
        
Males by age group      
 18-2464526168279
 25-44536342061,816
 45-64335362232,005
 65 +431372631,411
        
Females by age group      
 18-2474330138287
 25-44438341863,000
 45-64336372142,871
 65 +536341961,817
        
All persons by age group      
 18-2464428148566
 25-44537341964,816
 45-64336362244,876
 65 +434352243,228
        
Nationality      
 Irish nationals4363621412,204
 Non-Irish nationals9442310151,282
        
1 See Background Notes.
Table 3.6 All persons aged 18 years and over classified by how they would rate the Gardaí in their local area, 2015
       %
  Very goodGoodPoorVery poorNot statedUnweighted sample1 (number of persons)
    
All persons1560144713,486
       
Region      
 Border175713681,624
 Midland12581579817
 West17649381,306
 Dublin166015363,694
 Mid-East145418681,269
 Mid-West195916341,032
 South-East126314291,693
 South-West166310482,051
        
Sex      
 Male156014475,511
 Female165913487,975
        
Males by age group      
 18-2413641157279
 25-44156015471,816
 45-64156114472,005
 65 +166013561,411
        
Females by age group      
 18-2413611447287
 25-44146013483,000
 45-64175814472,871
 65 +205911381,817
        
All persons by age group      
 18-2413621357566
 25-44146014484,816
 45-64166014474,876
 65 +185912473,228
        
Nationality      
 Irish nationals1560144712,204
 Non-Irish nationals1561102121,282
        
1 See Background Notes.

Background Notes

 

Reference Period

The Crime and Victimisation module was included in the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS) in the three months interviewing period from October to December 2015.  The module was previously carried out in the periods January to March 2010, and September to November in 2003 and 2006. Respondents were asked about experiences in the previous 12 months.

 

 

Questionnaire: The module contained 77 questions on crime-related topics, divided into two main sections - household and individual questions:

 

Household Individual
- burglary - theft with violence
- theft of and from vehicles - theft without violence
- vandalism - physical assault
- theft of bicycles - fraud
  - perceptions and opinions in relation to crime, safety and the Gardaí

 

The module also included questions on the seriousness of crimes, on whether crimes were reported to the Gardaí and reasons why they weren’t reported.  In cases where the household or person had been a victim of a particular kind of crime more than once in the past year these questions related to the last incident. The survey did not ask about sexual assaults or domestic violence, as these questions were considered too sensitive and personal for inclusion in a general household survey such as the QNHS. 

 

Where an individual was not available for interview, in most circumstances information was provided by another member of the household via a proxy interview. A proxy interview refers to data which is collected from another member of the household due to the unavailability of the specific respondent at the time of the interview. Responses by proxy were not included in the compilation of results of opinion questions (Tables 3.1 -3.6).

 

A copy of the questionnaire used in this module is available here: Crime and Victimisation Module questionnaire (PDF 330KB)

 

 

Definitions of crimes

 

Burglary: Breaking and entering by a person into a premises (either a house/apartment or an outbuilding).  Thefts from gardens are not included nor thefts by a person who has the permission/right to be in the premises.

 

Vandalism: Damage done to any type of property or vehicle belonging to any member of the household, for example graffiti on house, shed or garden walls, damage to vehicles.

 

Theft with violence: Stealing or attempting to steal something from a person by using force or threatening to use violence.  This includes incidents such as mugging or attempted mugging and is sometimes referred to as robbery.

 

Theft without violence: Stealing or attempting to steal something from a person without involving force.  Examples of this type of incident are pick-pocketing or a jacket being stolen.

 

Physical assault: Physical assault of a person, excluding attacks of a sexual nature and domestic violence.

 

Theft of a mobile: This included bank card fraud, internet fraud, embezzlement, credit card fraud or goods purchased and not delivered.

 

Double-counting of incidents was avoided as much as possible.  For example, if a person was attacked during a burglary then this incident would have been only recorded as burglary and not also as an assault.

 

 

Survey weighting 

 

The QNHS grossing procedure aligns the distribution of persons covered in the sample with independently determined population estimates at the level of sex, five-year age group and region.  The grossing factors applied in the processing of the Crime and Victimisation module were calculated in the same manner but differ from those that were used in the preparation of the main QNHS estimates as the Crime and Victimisation questions were asked to a sub-sample of the overall QNHS sample. Grossing factors used in the compilation of results of opinion questions (Tables 3.1 – 3.6) were calculated excluding proxy respondents.

 

 

Urban/rural location

 

From 2014 onwards due to the new sampling methodology in the QNHS, areas are now classified as Urban or Rural based on the following populaton densities derived from Census of Population 2011:

Urban            

Population density > 100,000

Population density 50,000 - 99,999

Population density 20,000 - 49,999

Population density 10,000 - 19,999

Population density 5,000 - 9,999

Population density 1,000 - 4,999

Rural

Population density < 199 - 999

Rural areas in countries

 

 

Analysis by deprivation

 

The Pobal Haase-Pratschke Deprivation Index is used to analyse levels of crime and victimisation experienced by households. The Index uses Census data to measure levels of disadvantage or affluence in a particular geographical area. More detailed information on the index can be found here: https://www.pobal.ie/Pages/New-Measures.aspx .

The results are presented by quintiles, five equal-sized groups of households, with the first quintile representing the least deprived/most affluent area and the fifth quintile representing the most disadvantaged areas. 

 

 

Regions

 

The regional classifications in this release are based on the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) classification used by Eurostat.  The NUTS3 regions correspond to the eight Regional Authorities established under the Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993, which came into operation on 1 January 1994.  The NUTS2 regions, which were proposed by Government and agreed by Eurostat in 1999, are groupings of the NUTS3 regions.  The composition of the regions is set out below.  

 

Border, Midland and Western  NUTS2 Region Southern and Eastern NUTS2 Region
Border Cavan Dublin Dublin City
  Donegal   Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown
  Leitrim   Fingal
  Louth   South Dublin
  Monaghan Mid-East Kildare
  Sligo   Meath
 Midland Laois   Wicklow
  Longford Mid-West Clare
  Offaly   Limerick City
  Westmeath   Limerick County
 West Galway City   North Tipperary
  Galway County South-East Carlow
  Mayo   Kilkenny 
  Roscommon   South Tipperary
      Waterford City
      Waterford County
      Wexford
    South-West Cork City
      Cork County
      Kerry

 

Presentation of results

 

The results of this module are being presented, in general, in the form of percentages.  While the reference period of the survey does not correspond to an exact calendar year, the results are presented as referring to the year in which most of the reference period belongs. Therefore, the results are given as referring to 1998, 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2015. The unweighted sample totals are provided as well as percentages in some tables.

 

 

Comparison with other crime statistics

 

The survey results are not directly comparable with administrative crime statistics such as the “Recorded Crime” release which is based on Garda administrative sources. There are fundamental differences in sources, definitions and classification methodology. The administrative sources provide a much more detailed breakdown of offences reported or known to the Gardaí, offences prosecuted and offences committed by juvenile offenders.  The CSO survey results provide a more aggregated view of the level of crime, including unreported incidents, together with details of the demographic characteristics of victims.

 

 

Recorded Crime Offences
ICCS   2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
034 Assault causing harm, poisoning per 100,000 population 83.7 83.0 78.3 70.5 67.3 68.5 75.0
0613 Robbery from the person per 100,000 population 29.4 43.5 37.1 35.2 36.7 35.9 31.9
0712 Burglary (not aggravated) per 100,000 population 593.9 557.2 591.5 597.2 556.0 585.5 553.5
0821 Theft from person per 100,000 population 60.3 64.2 80.5 109.8 141.9 118.6 116.6
  CSO Population estimate (thousands) 4,459 4,471 4,575 4,585 4,593 4,610 4,635

 

Acknowledgements

The questions asked in the 2015 module on crime and victimisation were designed with the assistance of an advisory committee comprising representatives of the following organisations: An Garda Síochána, Department of Justice and Equality, Economic and Social Research Institute, COSC and other researchers.          

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