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CSO statistical release, 08 July 2015, 11am

Irish Life Tables

2010-2012

Age Males Females Gender Gap
   
078.482.84.4
6517.720.62.9
    

Fig 1

Irish Life Tables No. 16

2010-2012

Life expectancy continues to rise for both men and women


In the period 2010-2012, life expectancy at birth was 78.4 years for males and 82.8 years for females.  (See table above and tables 1, 2, 3 and fig.1).

• In the five years between 2006 and 2011 life expectancy increased by 1.6 years for males and 1.2 years for females.
• The gender gap now stands at 4.4 years, compared with the 4.8 years recorded in 2006.
• In 1926 male life expectancy was 57.4 years while it was slightly higher for females at 57.9 years.  This gender gap of 0.5 years continued to increase until 1986 when it stood at 5.7 years and has been decreasing gradually since.

In 2011, the highest life expectancy at birth for males among EU member states was reported in Sweden (79.9 years).  For females, France reported the highest life expectancy of 85.7 years.  (See table 4).
• In 2011, Irish male life expectancy ranked in joint 10th place with Germany while Irish female life expectancy ranked 17th.
• Females had a longer life expectancy than males across all EU member states.
• The largest difference in male and female life expectancies was in Lithuania at 11.2 years while the smallest was in the Netherlands at 3.7 years.
In 2011 in Ireland a 65 year old male could expect to live another 17.7 years, an increase of 1.1 years since 2006.  A 65 year old female could expect to live another 20.6 years, an increase of 0.8 years over the same period.  The highest life expectancy at this age for both sexes was reported in France at 19.3 years for males and 23.8 years for females.  (See tables 3, 4 and 5).


Significant improvements in life expectancy for both males and females over the past 85 years

Life expectancy at birth has increased significantly for both men and women since the first official life table was compiled in 1926. Over the 85 year period to 2011, male life expectancy increased by 21.0 years (36.6%), while female life expectancy increased by 24.9 years (43.0%). 

The improvements have been as a direct result of decreasing mortality rates, particularly infant mortality rates over the period. While there has been a continual increase in life expectancy for both males and females, with increases occurring between each set of life tables, the greatest rate of improvement occurred in the 20 year period between 1946 and 1966 (8.1 years for males and 10.5 years for females).  Strong gains have also been seen over the last 20 years with increases of 6.1 years for males and 4.9 years for females.  (See table 3).

 

 

The Life tables for the period 2010-2012 are based on a revised  methodology (Cubic Spline model).  A paper, giving the theoretical basis for this methodology, will be published by Kevin McCormack, Senior Statistician.  A link to this paper will be made available on the CSO website, www.cso.ie, in due course.

 

 

NOTE: This is an amended version of the original release and contains minor revisions to tables 1 and 2.  These revisions (effective from 01 September, 2015) are due to errors in the compilation of tables for the release.  Tables were further updated on the 19\02\2016 due to changes in the calculation of the life expectancy at ages 99 years and above.
Table 1 Irish Life Table No. 16, male period life expectancy by age, 2010 - 2012
Age x1lx1dx1px1qx1Lx1Tx1e0x1,2Age x
0100,0003790.99620990.0037901499,8107,837,04278.370
199,621350.99965080.0003491899,6047,737,23177.671
299,586110.99989160.0001084399,5817,637,62776.692
399,57570.99992640.0000736599,5727,538,04775.703
499,56880.99991770.0000822799,5647,438,47574.714
         
599,560100.99989740.0001026399,5557,338,91173.715
699,550110.99988800.0001119699,5447,239,35672.726
799,539110.99989140.0001086099,5337,139,81271.737
899,528100.99990190.0000981299,5237,040,27970.748
         
999,51890.99991350.0000865399,5146,940,75669.749
1099,50980.99992200.0000780599,5056,841,24368.7510
1199,50280.99992460.0000754399,4986,741,73767.7611
1299,49480.99991810.0000818699,4906,642,23966.7612
         
1399,486100.99989550.0001045199,4816,542,74965.7713
1499,476160.99984350.0001565099,4686,443,26964.7714
1599,460230.99976700.0002330199,4486,343,80163.7815
1699,437330.99967130.0003286699,4206,244,35362.8016
         
1799,404440.99955980.0004402099,3826,144,93261.8217
1899,360560.99943890.0005611399,3326,045,55060.8418
1999,305680.99931770.0006823399,2715,946,21759.8819
2099,237790.99920670.0007932999,1975,846,94758.9220
         
2199,158880.99911610.0008838699,1145,747,74957.9721
2299,070940.99905410.0009458799,0245,648,63557.0222
2398,977960.99902550.0009744998,9295,549,61156.0723
2498,880960.99903120.0009687798,8325,450,68355.1224
         
2598,785920.99906860.0009314298,7385,351,85054.1825
2698,692860.99913190.0008680798,6505,253,11253.2326
2798,607790.99920120.0007988598,5675,154,46252.2727
2898,528760.99922510.0007748998,4905,055,89551.3128
         
2998,452780.99920440.0007955898,4134,957,40550.3529
3098,373810.99917240.0008276198,3334,858,99249.3930
3198,292850.99913670.0008633298,2504,760,66048.4331
3298,207890.99909700.0009030298,1634,662,41047.4832
         
3398,118930.99905290.0009470898,0724,564,24846.5233
3498,025980.99900410.0009958997,9774,466,17645.5634
3597,9281030.99895010.0010499097,8764,368,19944.6135
3697,8251090.99889040.0011096197,7714,270,32243.6536
         
3797,7171150.99882440.0011756097,6594,172,55242.7037
3897,6021220.99875150.0012484997,5414,074,89341.7538
3997,4801300.99867100.0013290197,4153,977,35240.8039
4097,3501380.99858200.0014179697,2813,879,93739.8640
         
4197,2121470.99848380.0015162397,1383,782,65638.9141
4297,0651580.99837520.0016248596,9863,685,51737.9742
4396,9071690.99825510.0017449396,8233,588,53137.0343
4496,7381820.99812220.0018777696,6473,491,70936.0944
         
4596,5561960.99797520.0020247696,4593,395,06235.1645
4696,3612110.99781250.0021875496,2553,298,60334.2346
4796,1502280.99763210.0023678896,0363,202,34833.3147
4895,9222460.99743220.0025678195,7993,106,31132.3848
         
4995,6762670.99721040.0027895995,5433,010,51231.4749
5095,4092900.99696420.0030357795,2642,914,97030.5550
5195,1203150.99669080.0033092094,9622,819,70529.6451
5294,8053430.99638690.0036130894,6332,724,74328.7452
         
5394,4623730.99604900.0039510394,2762,630,11027.8453
5494,0894070.99567290.0043270793,8852,535,83426.9554
5593,6824450.99525420.0047457693,4602,441,94926.0755
5693,2374860.99478780.0052121892,9942,348,48925.1956
         
5792,7515320.99426790.0057320692,4852,255,49524.3257
5892,2205820.99368820.0063118191,9292,163,00923.4558
5991,6386380.99304140.0069586491,3192,071,08122.6059
6091,0006990.99231940.0076806090,6501,979,76221.7660
         
6190,3017660.99151320.0084867689,9181,889,11220.9261
6289,5358400.99061280.0093872489,1141,799,19420.0962
6388,6949220.98960660.0103933888,2331,710,07919.2863
6487,77210110.98848210.0115178787,2671,621,84618.4864
         
6586,76111080.98722510.0127748886,2071,534,57917.6965
6685,65312150.98581970.0141802585,0461,448,37216.9166
6784,43813300.98424840.0157516383,7731,363,32716.1567
6883,10814550.98249130.0175086882,3811,279,55315.4068
         
6981,65315900.98052670.0194732680,8581,197,17214.6669
7080,06317350.97833030.0216696679,1961,116,31413.9470
7178,32818900.97587520.0241248277,3831,037,11913.2471
7276,43920540.97313150.0268685075,412959,73512.5672
         
7374,38522270.97006640.0299336173,271884,32311.8973
7472,15824070.96664360.0333563770,955811,05211.2474
7569,75125930.96282350.0371765468,455740,09710.6175
7667,15827830.95856230.0414377165,767671,64310.0076
         
7764,37529730.95381260.0461873862,889605,8769.4177
7861,40231610.94852270.0514772659,822542,9878.8478
7958,24133410.94263670.0573632556,571483,1668.3079
8054,90035080.93609440.0639056253,146426,5957.7780
         
8151,39236570.92883110.0711688849,563373,4497.2781
8247,73437820.92077830.0792217445,844323,8866.7982
8343,95338740.91186320.0881367642,016278,0426.3383
8440,07939270.90201000.0979900038,115236,0275.8984
         
8536,15239350.89113960.1088603634,184197,9125.4785
8632,21638930.87917130.1208287330,270163,7285.0886
8728,32337950.86602310.1339768626,426133,4584.7187
8824,52936400.85161410.1483859322,709107,0324.3688
         
8920,88934290.83586520.1641347519,17584,3234.0489
9017,46031660.81870250.1812975415,87865,1483.7390
9114,29528580.80005880.1999412512,86649,2713.4591
9211,43725170.77987750.2201224510,17836,4053.1892
         
938,91921570.75811640.241883617,84126,2272.9493
946,76217940.73475120.265248805,86518,3862.7294
954,96814420.70978120.290218764,24712,5212.5295
963,52611170.68323480.316765232,9688,2742.3596
         
972,4098310.65517550.344824471,9945,3062.2097
981,5795800.63246830.367531701,2883,3122.1098
999983500.64915860.350841358232,0242.0399
1006481960.69682870.303171315501,2001.85100
         
1014521720.61976440.380235553666501.44101
1022802040.27273660.727263371782851.02102
10376400.48116190.51883813571071.40103
1043750.86308530.1369146834501.36104
         
10532320.95956700.0404330416160.50105
 
1See below and background notes.      
x  the exact age of the person, that is on his or her birthday.    
lx the number of persons surviving to exact age x out of the original 100,000 aged 0.   
dx the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 out of lx persons who enter  that year.  
px the probability of surviving a year, or the ratio of the number completing the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
qthe rate of mortality, the probability of dying in a year, or the ratio of the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
Lx the population to be expected according to the Life Table aged between x and x+1 years, assuming deaths occur evenly over the year.
Tx the expected number of person years to be lived by the survivors at age x.   
2e0x life expectancy at age x for each person surviving, or the total future life time in years which will on average be passed  through by persons aged exactly x.
Table 2 Irish Life Table No. 16, female period life expectancy by age, 2010 - 2012
Age x1lx1dx1px1qx1Lx1Tx1e0x1,2Age x
0100,0003290.99670980.0032902199,8358,275,17782.750
199,671680.99932230.0006776899,6378,175,34282.021
299,60390.99991100.0000890399,5998,075,70581.082
399,59560.99993730.0000626799,5917,976,10680.093
499,58870.99993380.0000662399,5857,876,51479.094
         
599,58280.99992360.0000763999,5787,776,92978.105
699,57470.99992780.0000721899,5717,677,35177.106
799,56760.99994240.0000576099,5647,577,78176.117
899,56150.99995050.0000495399,5597,478,21775.118
         
999,55650.99995240.0000475599,5547,378,65874.129
1099,55250.99994990.0000500699,5497,279,10473.1210
1199,54760.99994330.0000567199,5447,179,55572.1211
1299,54170.99993210.0000679099,5387,080,01171.1312
         
1399,53480.99991570.0000843499,5306,980,47470.1313
1499,526110.99989330.0001066999,5206,880,94469.1414
1599,515130.99986510.0001349499,5086,781,42368.1415
1699,502170.99983250.0001675599,4936,681,91567.1516
         
1799,485200.99979950.0002004899,4756,582,42266.1617
1899,465230.99977300.0002269699,4546,482,94765.1818
1999,443240.99976130.0002386799,4316,383,49364.1919
2099,419230.99976710.0002328899,4076,284,06263.2120
         
2199,396220.99978070.0002192899,3856,184,65562.2221
2299,374210.99979160.0002084499,3636,085,27061.2422
2399,353210.99979080.0002092599,3435,985,90760.2523
2499,332230.99976790.0002320699,3215,886,56459.2624
         
2599,309280.99971830.0002816699,2955,787,24358.2725
2699,281300.99970170.0002982799,2675,687,94857.2926
2799,252240.99975480.0002451799,2405,588,68156.3127
2899,227230.99976680.0002331699,2165,489,44255.3228
         
2999,204250.99974400.0002559999,1925,390,22654.3329
3099,179280.99971270.0002872699,1655,291,03553.3530
3199,150320.99967840.0003215999,1345,191,87052.3631
3299,118360.99964080.0003592099,1015,092,73651.3832
         
3399,083400.99959970.0004003599,0634,993,63550.4033
3499,043440.99955470.0004452899,0214,894,57249.4234
3598,999490.99950570.0004942998,9754,795,55148.4435
3698,950540.99945230.0005476998,9234,696,57647.4636
         
3798,896600.99939420.0006058198,8664,597,65346.4937
3898,836660.99933100.0006690098,8034,498,78745.5238
3998,770730.99926230.0007376798,7334,399,98444.5539
4098,697800.99918780.0008122498,6574,301,25143.5840
         
4198,617880.99910680.0008932098,5734,202,59442.6241
4298,529970.99901890.0009810698,4804,104,02141.6542
4398,4321060.99892360.0010763998,3794,005,54040.6943
4498,3261160.99882010.0011798598,2683,907,16139.7444
         
4598,2101270.99870790.0012921498,1473,808,89338.7845
4698,0831390.99858590.0014140698,0143,710,74637.8346
4797,9451510.99845350.0015464997,8693,612,73236.8947
4897,7931650.99830960.0016904197,7103,514,86335.9448
         
4997,6281800.99815310.0018469597,5383,417,15335.0049
5097,4471970.99798270.0020173497,3493,319,61534.0750
5197,2512140.99779700.0022030097,1443,222,26633.1351
5297,0372330.99759450.0024055096,9203,125,12232.2152
         
5396,8032540.99737330.0026266596,6763,028,20231.2853
5496,5492770.99713150.0028684796,4112,931,52630.3654
5596,2723020.99686670.0031332696,1212,835,11629.4555
5695,9703290.99657640.0034236495,8062,738,99528.5456
         
5795,6423580.99625740.0037425995,4632,643,18927.6457
5895,2843900.99590650.0040935195,0892,547,72626.7458
5994,8944250.99551970.0044802794,6812,452,63725.8559
6094,4694640.99509270.0049073394,2372,357,95624.9660
         
6194,0055060.99462020.0053797893,7522,263,71924.0861
6293,4995520.99409650.0059035093,2232,169,96623.2162
6392,9476030.99351480.0064852292,6462,076,74322.3463
6492,3456590.99286730.0071327492,0151,984,09721.4964
         
6591,6867200.99214490.0078550991,3261,892,08220.6465
6690,9667880.99133730.0086627090,5721,800,75619.8066
6790,1788630.99043230.0095677089,7461,710,18418.9667
6889,3159450.98941580.0105842288,8421,620,43818.1468
         
6988,37010360.98827130.0117287387,8511,531,59617.3369
7087,33311370.98697950.0130204886,7651,443,74416.5370
7186,19612480.98551800.0144820485,5721,356,98015.7471
7284,94813710.98386010.0161399184,2621,271,40814.9772
         
7383,57715060.98197470.0180252582,8231,187,14614.2073
7482,07016560.97982520.0201748481,2421,104,32213.4674
7580,41418200.97736790.0226321179,5041,023,08012.7275
7678,59420000.97455150.0254485177,594943,57612.0176
         
7776,59421970.97131490.0286850675,496865,98111.3177
7874,39724120.96758570.0324142873,191790,48510.6378
7971,98626430.96327750.0367224670,664717,2949.9679
8069,34228920.95829540.0417045667,896646,6309.3380
         
8166,45031530.95255140.0474485764,874578,7348.7181
8263,29734210.94595590.0540441361,587513,8608.1282
8359,87736870.93841760.0615823958,033452,2737.5583
8456,18939420.92984750.0701525354,218394,2407.0284
         
8552,24741710.92016290.0798371150,162340,0226.5185
8648,07643610.90929360.0907064245,896289,8606.0386
8743,71544940.89718830.1028116641,468243,9645.5887
8839,22145570.88382280.1161772336,943202,4965.1688
         
8934,66445340.86920740.1307926132,397165,5544.7889
9030,13044170.85339590.1466040827,922133,1564.4290
9125,71342040.83649270.1635073023,611105,2354.0991
9221,50939000.81865870.1813413319,55981,6233.7992
         
9317,60835200.80011490.1998851415,84962,0653.5293
9414,08930830.78114270.2188573012,54746,2163.2894
9511,00526180.76208050.237919529,69633,6693.0695
968,38721530.74331580.256684237,31123,9732.8696
         
976,23417130.72527390.274726135,37816,6622.6797
984,52113180.70840320.291596813,86211,2852.5098
993,2039830.69306820.306931792,7117,4222.3299
1002,2207180.67675260.323247441,8614,7112.12100
         
1011,5025210.65311230.346887661,2422,8501.90101
1029813780.61425500.385745017921,6081.64102
1036032720.54952380.450476184678161.35103
1043311480.55405590.445944072573491.05104
         
1051841840.88985700.1101429992920.50105
         
x  the exact age of the person, that is on his or her birthday.    
lx the number of persons surviving to exact age x out of the original 100,000 aged 0.   
dx the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 out of lx persons who enter  that year.  
px the probability of surviving a year, or the ratio of the number completing the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
qthe rate of mortality, the probability of dying in a year, or the ratio of the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
Lx the population to be expected according to the Life Table aged between x and x+1 years, assuming deaths occur evenly over the year.
Tx the expected number of person years to be lived by the survivors at age x.   
2e0x life expectancy at age x for each person surviving, or the total future life time in years which will on average be passed  through by persons aged exactly x.
Table 3 Period life expectancy at various ages, 1871-2011
Years
Irish Life Table No.PeriodAge in years
05101520253545556575
  
  Males
             
 1870-7249.6....46.8..39.031.824.417.511.16.5
 1881-8349.4....46.0..38.130.723.416.710.86.3
 1890-9249.1....45.8..37.830.623.416.510.55.8
 1900-0249.3....46.2..38.231.023.816.910.85.8
 1910-1253.6....49.2..41.033.525.918.913.08.0
11925-2757.459.555.250.746.442.434.426.519.112.87.7
21935-3758.260.155.851.246.842.734.426.318.812.57.9
31940-4259.060.756.351.647.243.134.826.518.812.37.3
41945-4760.561.556.952.247.843.534.926.418.612.06.9
51950-5264.563.658.854.049.344.835.827.019.012.16.8
61960-6268.165.760.856.051.146.437.027.819.512.67.1
71965-6768.665.760.856.051.246.436.927.719.312.47.3
81970-7268.865.560.655.751.046.336.827.619.312.47.3
91978-8069.565.760.855.951.146.436.927.719.312.47.1
101980-8270.166.161.356.451.646.937.328.119.612.67.3
111985-8771.066.861.957.052.247.437.928.519.812.67.3
121990-9272.368.063.158.253.448.639.229.720.913.47.8
131995-9773.068.663.658.753.949.339.830.421.513.88.0
142001-0375.170.765.760.856.051.341.832.323.415.48.9
152005-0776.872.267.262.357.552.843.333.824.816.69.8
162010-1278.473.768.863.858.954.244.635.226.117.710.6
            
 Females
 
 1870-7250.9....47.7..39.832.425.017.711.26.6
 1881-8349.9....46.2..38.331.023.716.710.76.3
 1890-9249.2....45.5..37.730.523.216.210.35.9
 1900-0249.6....46.2..38.330.923.716.710.65.9
 1910-1254.1....49.4..41.433.826.419.213.48.2
11925-2757.959.254.950.546.442.434.727.019.613.48.4
21935-3759.660.456.151.647.343.235.227.219.613.18.4
31940-4261.061.456.952.448.044.035.827.619.813.28.1
41945-4762.462.557.953.248.844.736.328.020.113.17.7
51950-5267.165.460.655.851.246.637.728.920.613.37.6
61960-6271.969.064.159.254.349.539.930.722.114.48.1
71965-6772.969.664.859.854.950.140.431.122.414.78.4
81970-7273.570.065.160.255.350.540.831.422.715.08.5
91978-8075.071.066.161.156.251.441.632.123.315.48.8
101980-8275.671.566.661.756.851.942.132.623.715.79.1
111985-8776.772.467.562.557.652.742.933.324.316.29.5
121990-9277.973.568.663.658.753.844.034.525.417.110.2
131995-9778.574.169.164.259.354.444.635.025.817.410.4
142001-0380.375.770.865.860.956.046.236.627.418.711.2
152005-0781.676.972.067.062.157.247.437.728.519.812.1
162010-1282.878.173.168.163.258.348.438.829.520.612.7
 
1871-1911 data from the Report on the Commission on Emigration and other Population Problems 1948-1954.
..Data not available.
Table 4 Period life expectancy in 2011 by sex, age and country
Years
 Age
015304555657585
         
 Males
         
SE Sweden79.965.250.636.227.018.511.15.7
IT Italy79.765.150.536.126.918.511.26.0
ES Spain79.564.950.235.826.918.811.76.5
NL Netherlands79.464.850.135.726.518.110.95.9
CY Cyprus79.364.750.235.926.818.210.85.3
UK United Kingdom79.064.549.935.726.718.511.56.3
FR France78.764.149.735.627.019.312.26.9
MT Malta78.664.249.735.326.117.710.66.0
LU Luxembourg (Grand-Duché)78.564.049.434.825.817.810.95.6
DE Germany (including ex-GDR from 1991)78.463.849.234.926.018.211.36.7
IE Ireland78.463.849.435.226.117.710.65.5
AT Austria78.363.749.334.926.018.111.26.1
BE Belgium78.063.449.034.725.818.011.16.1
GR Greece78.063.449.034.926.118.211.26.2
DK Denmark77.863.248.534.225.317.310.55.6
PT Portugal77.362.748.234.225.717.810.85.9
FI Finland77.362.748.334.225.517.710.95.9
SL Slovenia76.862.247.633.424.616.910.45.8
CZ Czech Republic74.860.245.731.522.915.69.65.2
HR Croatia73.859.344.930.822.215.19.05.0
PL Poland72.558.143.830.122.115.49.85.7
SK Slovak Republic72.357.943.529.621.414.58.95.2
EE Estonia71.456.842.729.421.414.89.45.5
HU Hungary71.256.742.228.120.414.39.25.7
RO Romania70.856.942.628.821.114.59.05.2
BG Bulgaria70.756.742.428.520.514.08.54.8
LV Latvia68.654.340.227.119.613.48.75.4
LT Lithuania68.153.739.827.119.814.09.15.3
Females
        
FR France85.771.156.341.832.623.815.58.8
ES Spain85.671.056.141.532.123.014.57.9
IT Italy84.870.255.340.731.222.214.07.5
AT Austria83.869.254.439.830.521.713.67.3
PT Portugal83.869.254.439.830.521.613.47.2
FI Finland83.869.154.439.830.521.713.67.1
SE Sweden83.869.154.339.630.221.313.36.8
GR Greece83.669.054.239.630.221.212.86.7
LU Luxembourg (Grand-Duché)83.668.954.239.530.221.613.57.3
BE Belgium83.368.753.939.330.221.613.67.4
SL Slovenia83.368.653.839.229.921.113.17.0
DE Germany (including ex-GDR from 1991)83.268.653.839.229.921.213.27.0
NL Netherlands83.168.553.639.129.821.213.37.1
CY Cyprus83.168.453.638.929.520.311.95.8
UK United Kingdom83.068.453.639.129.821.113.37.3
MT Malta83.068.854.039.429.921.012.86.9
IE Ireland82.868.153.438.829.520.612.76.5
DK Denmark81.967.352.537.828.620.112.56.8
EE Estonia81.366.752.037.728.620.112.46.8
CZ Czech Republic81.166.451.637.127.819.211.76.2
PL Poland81.166.551.837.328.219.912.46.9
HR Croatia80.465.851.036.427.218.610.95.7
SK Slovak Republic79.865.350.636.027.018.410.95.8
LT Lithuania79.364.850.136.127.319.211.76.3
LV Latvia78.864.449.735.526.718.711.56.3
HU Hungary78.764.349.535.026.318.311.26.2
RO Romania78.264.149.435.026.117.810.65.7
BG Bulgaria77.863.648.934.725.717.310.05.1
         
Table 5 Period life expectancy by sex, age, country and year
Years
 Age = 0Age 65
19801990200220062011 19801990200220062011
Males
           
EU15 European Union (15 countries)70.572.875.8.... 13.414.616.3....
EU28 European Union (28 countries)........77.3 ........17.8
SE Sweden72.874.877.778.879.9 14.315.316.917.718.5
IT Italy270.673.977.478.179.7 13.315.117.017.518.5
ES Spain72.373.476.377.779.5 14.615.516.917.918.8
NL Netherlands72.773.876.077.779.4 14.014.415.616.818.1
CY Cyprus72.374.176.478.879.3 14.515.816.317.718.2
UK United Kingdom70.272.976.077.279.0 12.614.016.217.218.5
FR France70.272.875.777.378.7 14.015.517.018.219.3
MT Malta68.073.776.377.078.6 10.715.415.316.117.7
LU Luxembourg (Grand-Duché)69.172.474.676.878.5 12.314.315.917.017.8
DE Germany169.672.075.777.278.4 12.814.016.217.218.2
IE Ireland70.172.375.176.878.4 12.613.415.416.617.7
AT Austria69.072.375.877.278.3 12.914.416.317.318.1
BE Belgium69.972.775.176.678.0 12.914.315.817.018.0
GR Greece73.074.776.277.278.0 15.215.716.617.518.2
DK Denmark71.272.074.876.177.8 13.614.015.416.217.3
PT Portugal67.970.673.875.577.3 13.114.015.716.617.8
FI Finland69.271.074.975.977.3 12.513.815.816.917.7
SL Slovenia67.469.872.674.576.8 12.613.314.515.816.9
CZ Czech Republic66.967.672.173.574.8 11.211.713.914.815.6
HR Croatia........73.8 ........15.1
PL Poland66.966.370.370.972.5 12.412.413.914.515.4
SK Slovak Republic66.766.769.870.472.3 12.012.313.213.314.5
EE Estonia64.164.765.367.471.4 11.412.012.813.214.8
HU Hungary65.565.268.369.271.2 11.612.113.213.614.3
RO Romania66.666.767.369.270.8 12.513.212.913.614.5
BG Bulgaria68.468.068.869.270.7 12.612.713.013.214.0
LV Latvia63.664.364.765.468.6 ..12.112.512.713.4
LT Lithuania65.466.566.265.368.1 13.413.313.313.014.0
           
Females
EU15 European Union (15 countries)77.279.481.6.... 17.118.419.9....
EU28 European Union (28 countries)........83.1 ........21.3
FR France78.480.983.084.485.7 18.219.821.322.623.8
ES Spain78.480.683.284.485.6 17.819.321.022.023.0
IT Italy277.480.483.283.784.8 17.118.921.021.322.2
AT Austria76.179.081.782.883.8 16.318.119.820.721.7
PT Portugal74.977.580.682.383.8 16.117.119.220.221.6
FI Finland77.679.081.683.183.8 16.517.819.821.221.7
SE Sweden79.080.582.183.183.8 18.119.120.120.921.3
GR Greece77.579.581.181.983.6 17.018.018.719.421.2
LU Luxembourg (Grand-Duché)75.978.781.581.983.6 16.018.520.020.321.6
BE Belgium76.779.581.282.383.3 16.818.819.720.621.6
SL Slovenia75.277.880.582.083.3 15.917.119.020.021.1
DE Germany176.278.581.382.483.2 16.317.719.620.521.2
NL Netherlands79.380.280.782.083.1 18.519.119.320.321.2
CY Cyprus77.078.681.082.483.1 16.517.519.019.720.3
UK United Kingdom76.278.580.681.583.0 16.617.919.219.921.1
MT Malta72.878.181.381.983.0 12.818.019.119.521.0
IE Ireland75.677.980.381.682.8 15.717.118.719.820.6
DK Denmark77.377.879.480.781.9 17.617.918.219.220.1
EE Estonia74.175.077.078.681.3 15.615.817.318.320.1
CZ Czech Republic74.075.578.779.981.1 14.415.317.318.319.2
PL Poland75.475.378.879.781.1 16.416.218.018.819.9
HR Croatia........80.4 ........18.6
SK Slovak Republic74.475.777.778.479.8 15.216.016.917.318.4
LT Lithuania75.476.377.577.079.3 16.617.017.817.619.2
LV Latvia74.274.676.076.378.8 ..15.817.017.318.7
HU Hungary72.873.876.777.878.7 14.715.417.017.718.3
RO Romania71.973.174.776.278.2 14.215.215.716.517.8
BG Bulgaria73.974.775.576.377.8 14.615.215.716.317.3
           
 
1DEW Federal Republic of Germany (excluding ex-GDR) for 1980.
2Figures for 2006 relate to 2005.
..Data not available.

Background Notes

Life Tables presented here are period life expectancies.  Period expectation of life at a given age for 2010-12 is the average number of years a person would live if he or she experienced age-specific mortality rates for that time period throughout his or her life.  It is therefore not the number of years someone of that age could actually expect to live because death rates are likely to change in the future.

The basic assumption is that a given cohort of births, (100,000), start in a given year.  The mortality rates for each age are used to calculate how many of the cohort will reach each year of age until eventually all members of the cohort have died.  This enables the total number of years lived by the cohort to be calculated.  When this total is divided by the number of persons in the cohort, (100,000), the result is the average number of years lived in the cohort, or the mean expectation of life at birth.  The total  number of years lived by the cohort from any given age can also be calculated and, when divided by the number of survivors in the cohort entering upon that year of age, the figure obtained is the expectation of life in years for those persons.

Life Tables were constructed for males and females which are representative of the mortality experience in Ireland in 2011 by using the 2010, 2011 and 2012 estimates and census of population (usually resident) and deaths registered in the three years.  The life table should reflect the normal mortality conditions at about the time of the Census. 

Glossary of technical terms  

x  the exact age of the person, that is, on his or her birthday.
lx the number of persons surviving to exact age x out of the original 100,000 aged 0.
dx the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 out of lx persons who enter  that year.
px the probability of surviving a year, or the ratio of the number completing the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
qthe rate of mortality, the probability of dying in a year, or the ratio of the number of deaths in the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering on the year.
Lx the population to be expected according to the Life Table aged between x and x+1 years, assuming deaths occur evenly over the year.
Tx the expected number of person years to be lived by the survivors at age x.
e0x life expectancy at age x for each person surviving, or the total future life time in years which will on average be passed  through by persons aged exactly x.

Examples

Figures from the Male Irish Life Table No. 16 are used in the examples below.  Please note that totals may not add up due to rounding.

The first column of the life table, lx equals the number of persons surviving in the life table at each exact age x, in other words the January population. l0 represents the life table population of new born children or those aged exactly zero.  If we let l0 equal 100,000 then for example, l5 is the number of persons surviving on their fifth birthday, which in this case equals 99,560.

The second column of the life table, dx equals the expected number of deaths of persons aged age x in the life table.

equation 1                                   

dx= lx−  lx+1  

Equation 1 tells us that the number of deaths equals the number of persons surviving at age x less the number of persons surviving at age x+1.

e.g. for males aged 5                    

d5= l5 − l6

= 99,560 – 99,550

= 10

The third column of the life table, px equals the probability of surviving from exact age x to x+1.  This is simply the ratio of those completing the year of age x to x+1 to the number entering the year.  For example, p5 is the probability of surviving ones fifth year, which in this case equals 0.99990.
    
equation 2                                    

px= l(x+1) / lx

Rewriting equation 2 where age x = 10, we see the number of persons surviving to their eleventh birthday equals the number of persons at their tenth birthday multiplied by the probability of their surviving to their eleventh, the remainder having of course died.  Migration is ignored in a life table as the population if closed.

l11 = l10.p10 

= 99,509 x 0.99992

= 99,502

The fourth column of the life table, qx equals the probability of dying between one birthday and the next.  This may also be called the risk of dying in a life table year, in other words the risk of dying at a particular age. The probability of dying and the probability of survival equal unity.  In other words one can only be alive or dead.

equation 3

px+ qx = 1    

From equations 1, 2 and 3:

equation 4

qx= dx / lx   

So the probability of dying is the ratio of the number of deaths at exact age x divided by the number of persons surviving at that exact age.  Hence we say the life table is based on ‘current mortality rates only and that no assumptions are made about future changes’.

The fifth column of the life table, Lx equals the number of years survived by the life table cohort between the ages x and x+1, in other words the July population.  Assuming a uniform distribution of deaths over a year of age and using equation 1 we find:

equation 5

Lx= lx− (dx / 2)

= lx − (( lx− lx+1 ) / 2)

= (lx + lx+1 ) / 2             (x>0)

e.g. for age 1 this means

L1= l1− (d1 / 2) = 99,621 – 35/2 = 99,604 

or 

L1= (l1+12 ) / 2= (99,621 + 99,586)/2 = 99,604

This cannot be used at age 0 as infant deaths are not evenly distributed (i.e. they are non-linear over a year).  For example, in 2011 34% of all infant deaths occurred on their first day of life.

The sixth column of the life table, Tx equals the total number of years which will be survived at age x, lx.  So if Lx is person years, then Tx is cumulated person years , i.e.

equation 6

 Tx = x105Lx 

e.g.  T102 = L102+L103+L104+L105

The final column of the life table, e0x is the life expectancy in years

equation 7

 e0x=Tx / lx  

e00 represents life expectancy at birth and it is broadly used to express the level of mortality.  Life expectancy is the average number of additional years a person would live if current mortality trends were to continue.  The expectation of life at birth represents the mean length of life of individuals who are subjected since birth to current mortality trends.  Life expectancy is usually compiled on the basis of a life table showing the probability of dying at each age for a given population according to the age specific death rates prevailing in a given period.

Further information

From equation 3 we see the link between the probability of surviving with that of dying, therefore we can make assumptions on the probability of surviving from the probability of dying.  This is what is referred to in population projections as the mortality assumption.

Sx= Lx ⁄ Lx-1

The survivorship ratio at age x, Sx, equals the ratio of those surviving between ages x and x+1 and those surviving between the ages of x-1 and x, e.g. the ratio of those aged 5 – 9 surviving to age 10 -14 is calculated as follows:

S10-14 =1014 Lx 5Lx

Similarly, the probability of a man aged 20 dying before his 50th birthday is calculated as follows:

qx=1−px

=1− (lx+1 ) / (lx

= ( lx− lx+1 ) / lx

 therefore

q20-50 = ( l20− l50 ) / l20

= (99,237 − 95,409) / 99,237

= 0.039 = 3.9%

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